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Hybrid Mfg Tech - Metal Training Material

18 Sept 2015
by

Jason Jones

on 19 December 2018

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Transcript of Hybrid Mfg Tech - Metal Training Material

1mm dia. spot "Fine" head
5mm stand-off
3 g/m powder
300 W Laser Power
350 mm/min Feedrate
4 L/m Nozzle Gas
8 L/m Shield Gas
4 L/m Carrier Gas
Overview
Laser safe enclosure
Add the dock & tools
Electrical integration:

Door interlocks
E-stop
Custom M-codes
Integration
Modifications
Operation
Standard machine tool programming
Adaptive software = Fully automated repair
(with some user-defined M-codes)
AMBIT™ In a nutshell
CNC Machine
Industrial 3D Printer for Metal
Dr. Jason B. Jones, CEO
Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies
www.hybridmanutech.com
The Marriage of CNC & AM
Source: https://emmaeartha.wordpress.com/2014/02/10/the-very-best-wedding-ring-shopping-for-guidelines/
Some Applications
Source: J. B. Jones, D. E. Cooper, D. I. Wimpenny, and G. J. Gibbons, SME Technical Paper TP12PUB36: “Gateways Toward Dissimilar Multi-material Parts," RAPID 2012 and 3D Imaging Conferences & Exposition, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2012.
Ta
steel substrate
Favorite Materials:
Ferrous, Ni & Co Alloys
+ Coolant filtration
slide wipers
Manual
or
CAM with post processor
Air drying step before cladding
dockable "dock" manifold mount

Slide

Ball screw

Plate modified to suit platform

The docking mechanism is design to deliver the manifold to the processing head when required
The unit can be modified to suit any machine platform (vertical spindle)
Facilitates integration into Acclaim 3 platform

Docking mechanism

Feedstock
Integration
Inert gas type can affect crystal structure
Cooling rate = fine microstructure
~800 to 400 C/s
500W for 10 mins @ 100mm stand-off
Examples of Hybrid Systems
Hybrid CNC

2013
- First commercial hybrid CNC machine with integrated Directed Energy Deposition (DED), in collaboration with Hamuel
2015
- Inaugural winner of the International Additive Manufacturing Award (IAMA)
Pioneering Additive Manufacturing + CNC
2014
- First commercial hybrid platform with multiple interchangeable heads, demonstrated in collaboration with Mazak
2015
- First commercial hybrid grinder, developed in collaboration with ELB
2014-15
- 1st certified blade repair using a hybrid CNC
2012
- 1st tool-changeable metal AM retrofit kit
Water-based cutting fluid (not oil)
Light tight enclosure
Worst case scenario for laser
safety calculations
Chiller for heads

Flashlight, laser pointer, sensor
~70x36mm internal dimension on cable track and contains:
The laser fibre
2 off 6mm OD cooling tubes for the deposition head
1 off 4mm powder feed tube
2 off 4mm OD Argon tubes

Between the head & I/O module (distance typically <2m)
4 switch cables
4 tubes

They will need to route to the I/O module on the Z axis
1 off Ethercat cable (exactly like Ethernet cable)
1 off 24V power supply cable approx 6mm diameter
1 off 6mm OD pneumatics tube

Wires from the machine tool to the AMBIT Core
4 wires for the door switch (2 channels)
4 wires for e-stop circuit (2 channels)
Profibus cable to the CNC control

From AMBIT Core
power & profibus to the powder feeder
chiller




Extraction rate calculations

5m^3 takes ~37s to evacuate at 500m^3/hr
(same as 185ft^3 @ 300cfm)
H14 recommended (99.997% @ 0.3 microns)
HEPA filter needed (pre-filter optional)
Automatic on/off
ISO 60825 standards for labeling & safety
interlocked doors with key or 2+ screws,
needs to be labeled
Dry:
collection pan
+ vacuum
Wet:
collection in
flood coolant
Assessment
microscopy
CT scanning
Test flammability of metal panels
Condensation in the optics must be avoided!
Particle Size Distribution "PSD"
2:1 ratio of largest to smallest powder size is best
"fine" particles vaporize/boil before the larger particles melt
"fine" particles can be "shielded" from the laser energy by larger particles
(so they won't fully melt causing defects)
(resulting in a "hissing" sound and causing void defects)
Laser
Energy
Laser safety officer
Separate monitor
For non-reactive metal powders
No powdered Magnesium
No powdered Titanium
No powdered Aluminum
(due to explosion risk)
Trapped key
Oxygen < 5 ppm
Water < 10.5 ppm
Total Hydrocarbons (as CH4) < 1 ppm
Argon >99.998% pure
Safety
Thank you for purchasing an AMBIT™ enabled CNC.
Thank you
and making the switch...
...to the full spectrum of hybrid processing
This helps us to continue...
CNC Machine
AMBIT systems do not do
(even though it is a great process)
AMBIT systems do
inside of a
A Hybrid approach
which eliminates the
enabling smooth accurate surfaces in a single setup
Your AMBIT system has been prepared for non-reactive (non-explosive) powders only
The AMBIT system is designed to have all maintenance done with the laser off whenever the safety enclosure is open
The laser is hazardous to the eyes for >50 meters (~165')
To prevent injury the system has laser safe windows in a full enclosure with with trapped key interlock.

Always maintain it in working order
500W for 10 mins @ 100mm stand-off
Chiller for heads

Extraction rate calculations

5m^3 takes ~37s to evacuate at 500m^3/hr
(same as 185ft^3 @ 300cfm)
H14 recommended (99.997% @ 0.3 microns)
HEPA filter needed (pre-filter optional)
Automatic on/off
ISO 60825 standards for labeling & safety
including:
interlocked doors with key or
2+ screws on panels which are labelled
Condensation in the optics must be avoided!
Trapped key Interlock
Your laser safe windows have been tested,
but will not survive laser exposure forever
Standard CNC windows
do not stop laser energy
(most of it passes through)
(On to hands-on training)
Available at:
http://www.additivemanufacturing.media/blog/post/optimizing-metal-powders-for-additive-manufacturing-exploring-the-impact-of-particle-morphology-and-powder-flowability
Clayton, Dawes, Langley 2017
Start up
Head Chiller On
Be mindful of dew point to avoid condensation
run the head chiller full-time
Maintenance
Avoid Condensation
Be mindful of dew point
run the head chiller full-time
Keep powder heated
Parameters
Laser
Use laser burn paper (with nozzle gas on)
Alignment with clear packing tape
Software for Parameter Setting
Setter vs. Operator
The AMBIT system is designed to have all maintenance done with the laser off whenever the safety enclosure is open
Powder Feeder On
Heaters on
Check you have powder in hopper
In remote mode (if Keyed = 2)
Check powder is consistently filling the slot and not overfilling
Inert Gas On
Outlet pressure 5-6 bar (~75-90psi)
Check you have sufficient gas
Laser On
Red light on interlock during emission
(Runs in "remote" mode)
Laser & Laser Chiller On
Start both at the same time
Powder Capture Check
Check capture tank is not full (or empty)
CNC & AMBIT Core On
Log in to AMBIT Core HMI
Check gear icon has green background
2 user types: Setter, Operator
Extraction Ready
Breaker (back) & "Power" key (front) green
(interlock will stay locked while extraction runs)
Inspect Optics & Nozzle
Load tool & wipe docking interface
Manually open shutter & check window
Check nozzles are free from soot & debris
Docking
Wipe docking interface, check pogos & fittings
Check protective window in cleaning position
Dock to processing head
Look to ensure dock is flush to head face
Check Laser Enable
Check for a "green" light on keyed interlock
Check Correct Recipe
Look at HMI dashboard for the "current" or active recipe
Checklist
Head Chiller
Regularly check there is enough water
Check the quality of the water
Powder Feeder
No powder outside disc channels
Powder changeover & cleaning
Check for Gas Leak
Pressurize the system (open main valve)
Close the main valve
Check after 2min that no pressure is lost on regulator
Laser
Be sure fiber is protected and unstrained
Do not unplug fiber without Hybrid
Laser Chiller
Regularly check there is enough water
Check the quality of the water
AMBIT Core
Shut down gracefully - close programs and shut down windows prior to cutting power
Extraction
Self-monitoring will alarm for filter change
As needed replace pre- & main (HEPA) filters
Stored data can be downloaded onto USB drive
Heads: Nozzle & Optics
Nozzle inspection with outer & middle nozzle removed
Change if required
Open optics drawer (clean if needed)
Check pull-stud is tight (do not turn head upside down)
In case of docking difficulty, check it is clocked square
Dock
Manual command to cleaning position>inspect optic (clean in-situ if needed)
Carefully wipe docking interface clean
Wipe horizontal rails with clean cloth & re-grease
How to Clean Optics
Review components in cleaning kit
Use latex powder-free gloves while handling optics
Try to blow off contaminants with a puffer or "can" of air
If needed, fold dry lint-free wipe & gently brush away
If needed, spritz with isopropyl alcohol or lens cleaner
drag or gently rub with lint-free cloth to remove debris; wipe dry and use puffer to remove all
Powder Calibration
Due to different densities of powder & disc sizes, powder feeders are in RPM
To correlate RPM to g/m run feeder at 20%, 40%, 60% and capture it into a container and plot weight vs. RPM
M5 bolts needed
to jack it out
Powder handling
(in machine & out)
& Conditions
Avoid Humidity
Air conditioning desirable
Keep powder heated
Avoid Contamination
Blow off residual cutting fluid from spindle, substrate & wipe off the dock (avoid blowing into dock)
Manage powder in the machine
typical ratio 2:1
(width:height)
316L Stainless
Delivery Disc Rotational speed (% RPM)
Powder Delivery Rate
Example Powder Calibration Chart
The first layer of deposition onto a substrate typically requires more laser power (since the heat has a better conduction path away from the bead)
Ideal Bead Shape
Absorption
Choose process
Choose recipe
Recipe number the machine uses
Helps humans identify the recipe
ALWAYS needed to protect optics and keep nozzle clear.
Typical: 3-4 L/m for 1mm nozzle
4-6 L/m for 3mm nozzle

NEVER go below 3L/m!
Determines processing power density which helps determine dilution and bond strength
Helps prevent oxidation of metal.
Typical: 6-12 L/m for 1mm nozzle
8-16 L/m for 3mm nozzle

Helps remove powder from channels in heads to keep docking interface clean.
Typical: 3-5 seconds

Keeps fume extractor running after the laser stops
Typical: 45-60 seconds

Carries powder to the head
Typical: 3-5 L/m for 1mm nozzle
4-6 L/m for 3mm nozzle

Slower motion keeps powder flowing without segregation
Typical: 30% or less for most powders

Favorite size:
44-90 micron diameter powder
(44-106 is also good)
Reduces the effect of moisture on the powder
Typical: 40-50C for most powders
(This setting only monitors most powder feeders, however it will give a warning when outside +/- 5C)
For capturing powder during dwells or process start-up
Also can be used for rapid change of materials (reduced to <5 seconds)

3mm dia. spot head
10mm stand-off
10-12 g/m powder
1000 W Laser Power
400 mm/min Feedrate
5 L/m Nozzle Gas
12 L/m Shield Gas
6 L/m Carrier Gas
Starter recipes
Head 1mm "Fine"
Deliver 0.1 – 0.5 kg/hr
1 mm bead width
Water cooled optics
Option for additional HP gas
Extraction rate calculations

5m^3 takes ~37s to evacuate at 500m^3/hr
(same as 185ft^3 @ 300cfm)
H14 recommended (99.997% @ 0.3 microns)
HEPA filter needed (pre-filter optional)
Automatic on/off
Gravity & Contamination
Dripping
oil & fluids
Keep optical
surfaces upright
What is wrong here?
Step over
typically = 70% bead width
Feed override
Use sparingly during deposition
Moving your hand slower through a candle flame analogy
When docked the software dashboard will show the tool #
IPG uses deionized water 35-45 micron Siemens
Head chiller is typically tap water with additive
Nozzle stand-off of the substrate
1mm head uses a 5mm stand-off (+/-20%)
3mm head designed for a 10mm stand-off (+/-20%)
Red lamp
indicates
laser emission
Green lamp
indicates
laser is armed (in standby mode)
Laser error
(press to attempt reset otherwise restart laser)
Optional laser emission sign
(Not normally required - only needed for machines with very limited IO)

CAM Software
& Settings for Tool Paths
CAM Software Options:
Autodesk PowerMill
EdgeCAM
Esprit Additive Suite
GibbsCAM
HyperMILL
Mastercam (with Addman plug-in)
Mayka Expert
Siemens NX (Q1 2018?)
(ModuleWorks component of some of the options above)
Calibration
Sample

Getting Started with Mayka
1. Set machine config with post processor
2. Edit preference > units to match CNC controller

Sign off
Simulation of AM:
M-code relay commands (typical for 2016 Haas Next Gen control)
DOCK M100 & UNDOCK M101
MEDIA ON M110 & OFF M111
(dwell for stabilization)
LASER ON M120 & OFF M121
Recipe selection (0-31)
Recipe 0 M98 P9100
Recipe 1 M98 P9101
Recipe 2 M98 P9102
...(so on)
Recipe 17 M98 P9117
...(& so on)
Recipe 31 M98 P9131
Recommended CNC Controller
Set AMBIT tools as large/heavy (leave an empty pocket on either side)
Avoid accidentally turning on the spindle
Disable spindle fwd & rev. command on controller
Or M19
Avoid accidentally releasing the AMBIT tools
Disable tool release button on controller (only use the button near the spindle)
Avoid a tool change while docked

Commissioning
& Setup
Vivid Lessons
Be sure the laser
Never used compressed air to blow powder airborne without using a respirator
M5 jacking screws
#4 allen key cut short (12mm)
In case of damage
check with laser burn paper

Contamination burned into lens
Rapid down into the workpiece
CNC stopped (due to low air) but laser did not






Solution: monitor the system
Nozzles not kept clean
inside or out
Hybrid repair of squealer tip
(Images courtesy of GE Power)
As clad
Finished
Operator error caused crash











Solution: 5% rapid moves and/or simulate CNC code
Head 3mm
Deliver 0.5 – 2.5 kg/hr
2-3 mm max bead width
Water cooled optics
Option for additional HP gas



#2 Cause of
head damage
#1 Cause of head damage
Contamination on protective
window blocks laser energy
Pockets too close for heads to be in adjacent pockets





Correction: Set
as "large tools" which leaves empty pockets either side
Keep your powder dry
(= happiness)
Bead profile is too tall (leading to porosity between tracks)
Avoid this
Not enough nozzle gas allowed contamination to be burned into window







Interlock
Close laser shield doors & use key to lock
If white button is lit, put it to clear any alarms
(will stay locked until extraction is complete)
Contamination burned onto window
Bead profile is too tall (leading to porosity between tracks)
(or downward facing)
If not click gear and choose System>Start/restart
Full transcript