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The Biomechanics of 100m Sprint

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Mikaela French

on 14 June 2014

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Transcript of The Biomechanics of 100m Sprint

The Biomechanics of 100m Sprint
What is Biomechanics
Force and Motion
- Force is anything that causes movement or diversion of an object which can be a push,pull, gravity or friction.

- Linear motion occurs in the 100m as the body moves in a straight line which can also be referred as rectilinear motion.
- Gravity is represented as an exerting downward force onto myself causing me to position myself into the block start.

-Center of Gravity is positioned in the area of the navel which is a stable position and will ultimately increase the size of the base of support.

-Line of gravity is represented in the center of the base of support and increases stability.

Newtons 3 Laws
1. a body at rest will remain at rest unless a force induces a change in the resting state.

2. the production of force is a combination of the athlete's body mass and acceleration.

3. for every action there is an equal reaction
Presented by Mikaela French
Driving Phase
Momentum is identified as 'mass in motion' and is present during the main three phases of the 100m event which is acceleration, maximum velocity and speed maintenance.

When using blocks at the start of the race early acceleration will be implemented which improves maximum speed.

Support Phase
Consists of landing or braking in which the foot strikes the ground and the weight of my body is absorbed through the lower extremities.

it is crucial that minimal braking is implemented to ensure that fluid momentum and motion are not affected.

I run on the balls of my toes to reduce the braking force.
Two forms of levers are presented in propulsion

1. The first class lever applies balanced movement, as the fulcrum is
placed between the load and
the effort.

2. The third class lever is applied because of where the force is in
relation to the fulcrum and the resistance.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics is the forces exerted on objects or bodies by interactions with the fluid they are traveling through.

In the 100m sprint fluid mechanics relate to the posture of an athlete when running to ensure efficient movement and aerodynamics.

My arms move with a smooth forward and backward motion, my elbows drive backwards and the shoulders are held back and relaxed. My eyes are focused on the track and my rear leg fully extends.

Block Start Interval
To help sprinters achieve correct angle technique out of the blocks and accelerate through the first interval.

1.Intervals 10m,30m,60m
2. Coach uses a starter pistol or command to start the athlete
3.Athlete will keep the low lean right from the start and then drive through the first interval.
4.Between the 20 and 60m the athlete should then be in a nearly upright position.

An area of science that involves mecanics and physics of human performance through movement. Biomechanists are generallly involved in attempting to either enhance an athletes performance or reduce the risk of injury.
The driving phase is maintained for the first 20-30m

You lean forward out of the blocks and propel yourself by the force of your feet into the ground

to lean your body sharply forward, keep your head tucked in looking slightly at the ground.

After the first 7-8 strides an athlete will be at approximately 70% of their maximum velocity.

To stay low and generate as much force as possible to accelerate maximum velocity.

Short and Long Lever
Short Lever:
The leg is folded to produce a shortened lever which increases stride frequency.
Athletes must not swing their feet up too high behind their buttocks as the angle must be constituent.

Long Lever:
When running the arms must be 90 degrees at the elbow.
As the arm moves backwards producing movement, a longer lever is produced as the elbow lengthens on the back swing increasing the angle and aligns with the opposite leg

The longer lever is the stronger lever, and the shorter lever produces sufficient speed.
Increasing angle
Opposing Leg
Swing Phase
The swing phase is the period in which the foot is off the ground and is swinging forward.

The swing phase is responsible for generating a pull on the runner's center of gravity.

The advancing center of gravity acts on the leg that is in contact with the ground to drive the body forward.

It is seen that my right leg is swinging forward to meet the ground while the left leg is preparing to take off to continue the next stride.

swing forward
preparing for the next stride
Self Improvements
My hips should be slightly higher than the shoulders and my back should be straight.
My head should be inline with the back to make a smooth transition out of the blocks.
My hands should be placed shoulder width apart behind the starting line.
The blocks could be positioned closer together to allow powerful acceleration.

Techniques such as correct body posture and the four running techniques contribute to improving an athletes sprint.

Biomechanics is important to sport as it allows athletes a safe method to perform a particular sport or exercise while reducing the risk of injury.
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