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Radioactive isotopes

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Jack Newham

on 30 November 2013

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Transcript of Radioactive isotopes

Benefits and Problems:
Iodine-123 has many advantages within the medical industry, it has made the detection of thyroid defects particularly easy to carry out. I-123 has a small half-life making it suitable for human application. I-123 is almost ignored within the body, it does not attack any cells within the body and only affects the thyroid gland. I-123 is also very easy o detect with the use of "SPECT"

The removal of excess radio iodine (I-123) can be difficult and it is generally advised to use a decontaminant specifically designed for radio iodine, as standard bodily decontaminants may be ineffective and can spread or volatilize the I-123. And so the removal of I-123 can be tricky.
Caesium-137 or Cs-137 is the most common form of radioactive cesium, as well as cesium-134.
Cs-137 is useful in industry due to its high radioactivity.
Cs-137 is produced when uranium and plutonium absorb neutrons and then undergo fission.

Cs-137 was discovered by Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen in 1860.

use and properties
Radioactive isotopes

Impact of society;
Iodine-123 has not been the most influential radioisotope that has been used in medicine, but I-123 has played a massive part in the detection of thyroid defects such as hyperthyroidism, and others.
I-123 has lead to advancement in the radio imaging industry and hence has had an effect on other regions of the radio medicine branch of medicine.




Medical Uses:
I-123 is most useful in the diagnosing of thyroid diseases as the I-123 is completely absorbed by the thyroid gland. the I-123 is then used to track the thyroid gland as the I-123 is registered using the "SPECT" technology.
the half life of I-123 is 13.3 hours and so it is perfect for the 24 hour Iodine up take test (IOTT)
Iodine - 123
Iodine-123 or I-123 is a result of proton irradiation in a Xenon-124 atom as the Xenon absorbs a proton to form Xenon-123. this Xenon-123 then breaks down to form I-123 under refrigeration. the I-123 is collected once the Xenon-123 has broken down and is then diluted with a solution of Sodium Hydroxide
The presence of I-123 is detected using what is know as "Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography" or "SPECT"

This is used to detect the Gama radiation that is given off by the I-123 atom.
This means that I-123 is perfect to use as a tracking ad imaging agent within the body, specifically the thyroid.
I-123 is completely absorbed within the thyroid gland, hence it is used as an agent to treat and diagnose tyroid illnesses.
Iodine - 123
Caesium - 137
Caesium-137 is used in industry applications such as;
machines used to detect the thickness of an object, usually aluminum foil or paper.
Cs-137 is also used in moisture-density gauges, widely used in the construction industry.

when using Cs-137 in thickness detection a Cs-137 emmitter is placed above the object, lets say paper, and there is a receiver below, Geiger counter etc. there is just enough Gama or Beta radiation given off so it will penetrate the paper with a specific measurable strength on the receiver, if the receiver registers a stronger or weaker sample that section of paper is to thin or to thick, respectively.
Caesium-137 can be detected using many methods, such as;
Geiger Muller tube (Geiger counter)
Ion chamber.

these are all known ways of detecting the Gama and Beta radiation that is given off by Cs-137.
Cs-137 is used due to its high radioactivity. (Alpha, Beta and Gama given off in measurable amounts.
advantages and
Caesium-137 has many advantages and disadvantages as an industry tool, such as;
It is a great radiation emitter.
it is not hard to obtain.
It is not highly lethal
(in moderate and small amounts)

However Cs-137 has disadvantages also;
it is extremely reactive (it reacts readily with air and very explosively with water)
Cs-137 can be a risk to humans (in high amounts or exposure) and can cause sever burns and is also a carcinogenic.

Impact on
Caesium-137 has many uses within both medicine and industry.
Cs-137 has had an effect in industry in offering a viable tool in measuring the thickness of papers and films but there are other radioisotopes that do this also.
the most noticeable impact would be in the medicine industry with its effectiveness in treating malignant cancers and tumors.

A biopolymer is a polymetric substanc that is produced within a living organism. A biopolymer consists or monomer that are covalently bonded to form the biopolymer.

RNA - Ribonucleic Acid is my chosen biopolymer. RNA is the predecessor to DNA (or Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Properties of RNA
RNA, unlike DNA, is a single stranded molecule, in that it is not a double helix (but it can form inter-strain double helix structures i.e TRNA)
RNA is much less stable than DNA as it contains Ribose instead or Deoxyribose and as a result it is more susceptible to Hydrolysis (breaking down of the covalent bonds by water)

Recent developments in RNA research;
Recently there has a break through in a technique that has been developed to analyse RNA molecules on a scale that has, before, been impossible.
This technique is used to analyse RNA molecules and their reactions to changing environment and how they are responsible for gene expression in reactions of the body to a changing environment.
As of yet this technique has only been trialed in plants, but it is the basis for more in depth study of the human anatomy and has the potential to help solve diseases and illness such as infection induced fevers.
Scientists have now isolated and studied over 10,000 RNA molecules where previously they had studied < 2000
Use of RNA
Ribonucleic Acid, RNA, plays a massive role in the process of protein synthesis, and thus is a vital part of our bodies operation and maintenance.
RNA is responsible for taking the instructions on encoding new proteins (giving them instructions on what they need to do) from our DNA and taking it to our Ribosomes, which are the proverbial machine that is responsible for protein synthesis.
The three types of RNA all play there own specific part in protein synthesis within out bodies. RNA has also, recently been found to play very complex roles in regulatory roles within cells and not just the task of Protien synthesis.

mRNA,tRNA and rRNA.
mRNA, messenger RNA,takes the protein's blueprint from a cells DNA and takes in onto the Ribosomes, the proverbial 'machine' that is charged with the synthesis of proteins, that are responsible for synthesizing that protein.
Transfer RNA is responsible for delivering the appropriate and needed Amino Acids into the Ribosome for the synthesis of the protein in question.
without the tRNA the Ribosmes would have the 'instructions' for synthesizing a protein but there would be no material from which to build the protein.
Ribosmal RNA is the material from which the Ribosomes, themselves,largely consist.
RNA synthesis
The main enzyme that is responsible for the synthesis of RNA is and enzyme called "RNA Polymerase"




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