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BRITISH ENGLISH VS AMERICAN ENGLISH
Transcript of BRITISH ENGLISH VS AMERICAN ENGLISH
WORD DERIVATION AND COMPOUNDS
- British forwards, towards, rightwards, etc.
- American forward, toward, rightward.
to day, night, evening, evening, weekend, Monday. To form adverbs denoting repeated actions. "I used to stay out evenings."
suffix commonly attached to some sports: footballer, cricketer, etc.
AmE: “name of sport + player:” Football player, basketball player.
Both of them use
suffix to the sport’s name if this can be used as a verb: Golfer, bowler.
Most of differences in vocabulary in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century. New words coined independently: Rail terminology.
BrE: rail way
AmE: rail road
Different slang and TV or movies have spread new words in both countries.
The early settlers in the US had no verbal contact with the folk they left behind in England.
Europeans settled in the US brought their languages.
Until the 1900s many books were imported from England. Hasta min2
Collective nouns either singular or plural in BrE, but always singular in AmE.
The American Army always win / wins the battles (BrE).
The American Army always wins the battles (AmE).
BRITISH ENGLISH : Have
· Delexical: have a bath.
· Activities: Have a nap.
AMERICAN ENGLISH : Take
- Take a shower.
- Take a bath.
- Take vacation.
- Take a rest.
AUXILIARY VERBS AND MODAL VERBS
PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SYNTACTIC ELEMENTS
TWO ACTIVITIES WITH OR WITHOUT CONJUNCTION 'AND'
BrE: to go + and + verb infinitive.
AmE: to go + verb infinitive
I’ll go and take a shower
I’ll go take a shower
BrE: to come + and + verb infinitive
AmE: to come + verb infinitive
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
Some institutional nouns require definite article in AmE, while in BrE don’t. Pragmatic use of article. Intrinsic use of those institutions: Church, hospital, prison, school, university.
She is at hospital (BrE)
He is at university
She is at the hospital (AmE)
He is at the university
The definite article is required when the role of student or patient doesn’t apply.
She is at the hospital visiting a friend of her (BrE and AmE)
He is at the university because he wanted to study archeology (BrE and AmE)
Dates require definite article in BrE.
The 21st of February (BrE)
February 21st (AmE)
-our / -or
Behaviour and behavior
Flavour and flavor
Double or single consonants
Counsellor and counselor
Waggon and wagon
Asphalte and asphalt
Axe and ax
-re to -er
Metre and meter
Theatre and theater
Compound consonants to single consonants
Cheque and check
Changes of vowels
Nought and naughty: -o into -a
Enclose and inclose -e into -i
Syren and siren: -y into -i/-ia/-a
Gipsy and gypsy: -i into -y
Changes of consonants
Defence and defense: -c into -s
Analyse and analyze: -s into -z
Sceptic and skeptic: -c into -k
Connexion and connection: -x into -ct
Mr, Mrs, St and Dr -> Mr., Mrs., St. and Dr.
Last letter of the abbreviation can’t be last letter of the complete word.
verb + noun
differs from AmE and BrE.
AmE uses infinitive form: rowboat
BrE uses gerund: rowing boat
Inflectional suffixes dropped in AmE, thus favouring clipped forms: cookbook, barbershop, skim milk
But in BrE: cookery book, barber's shop, skimmed milk.
Singular attributives in one country may be plural in the other, and viceversa.
BrE: drugs problem, sport section of a newspaper
AmE: drug problem, sports section of a newspaper.
WORDS AND PHRASES THAT HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN BrE
WORDS AND PHRASES THAT HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN AmE
WORDS AND PHRASES WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS
Words with completely different meanings are relatively few.
SAME SPELLING DIFFERENT PRONUNCIATION
In general, those differences are related to simplification from the American English. The words are spelled as they are in BrE, but pronounced differently.
There are correlations between how British people pronounce a sound and how Americans do.
/ju:/ BrE and /u:/ AmE
/ɑː/ BrE and /eɪ/ AmE
/(r)/ BrE and /r/ AmE
There are some variations in AmE and BrE when stressing. Some linguists, such as Benson, Ilson, Bauer or Jakobsen, assure that there are some rules that change the pronunciation in certain words.
Benson and Ilson (1986) note three differences:
- Disyllabic verbs ending in –ate.
o Initial stress in AmE
o Final stress in BrE
- The adverbial suffix –ly.
o Stress shift on the adjective in AmE
ordinary [ˈɔːdənrɪ] -> ordinarily [ɔːˈdənrɪlɪ]
o No shift in BrE
ordinary [ˈɔːdənrɪ] -> ordinarily [ˈɔːdənrɪlɪ]
- Loan words from French.
o Final stress in AmE
o Initial stress in BrE