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History of chemistry

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navdeep kaler

on 22 January 2013

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Transcript of History of chemistry

By: Sarah, Yusra, Atif and Navdeep History of Chemistry Born: 384 BC Aristotle Died: 322 BC Born: 460 BC Democritus Died: 370 BC Antoine Lavoisier named both oxygen and
hydrogen. He also helped construct the metric
system. In 1777 he announced that sulfur
was an element rather then a compound. Lavoisier is also well known as a biologist. Antoine Lavoisier John Dalton Johann Dobereiner Made a chart that plotted atomic volume against atomic weight. He worked on recalculating a number of atomic weights and the periodic table helped him study related element chemical properties. Meyer measured volume of one atomic weights worth of each element that is, one mole, and figured that since the number of atoms in each amount was the same, the volumes measured must show the relative volumes of the single atom. A.E Beguyer de Chancourtis was known for creating a functional and unique system of organizing the elements. He had suggested that 'the properties of the elements are the properties of numbers' and he needed a way to organize the elements. In 1862,he had made a spiral graph that was arranged on a cylinder. It was called the telluric helix or in french, vis tellurique. A.E Beguyer de Chancourtis Jons Berzelius Lord Rayleigh had first discovered rare inert gases such as argon. For nitrogen he found that when taken from atmosphere it was heavier than nitrogen that was obtained by the decomposition of pure ammonia gas. He discovered this by his attempts to determine more reliable atomic weights by making very precise density measurements on gases.Rayleigh had a well known theory of light scattering by small particles and explained how this was responsible for blue skies. Discovered noble gases. He was looking for a gas in the air that had a greater density when investigating for the presence of argon in a uranium- bearing mineral, he instead discovered helium, this led him to believe that there was a new group of elements. Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand born British Chemist. He moved to the Victoria University of Manchester in the Uk. He was known for theorizing that positive charged atoms were concentrated in one small nucleus and he made the Rutherford model of the atom. In 1911, he was credited with the first 'splitting' of the atom. He also had a gold foil experiment which helped him come to the conclusion of there being a nucleus in the atom. Marie Curie was a French-Polish physicist and chemist. She was known for her theory of radio active isotopes. She lived in Paris for a while and founded Curie Institutes. In 1898, she used her theory to separate a new element which was radium. She also discovered Polonium and named it after her home country, Poland. With her research, she laid a new cornerstone of the nuclear age. Gilbert Lewis was an American Physical Chemist. He lived in Berkely, California and that's where he had ideas of a covalent bond which was shared by a pair of electrons. He was known for his theory of covalent bonds and after he had done a few experiments, he proved his theory. In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity. In
1903 he recieved a Nobel Prize for this discovery
along with two others who helped in the process. In 1924, Louis de Brogolie said electrons could behave
waves under certain conditions. He helped scientists
undertsand that the atom did'nt always behave
like the solar system, because electron do not always
move in regular orbits. In the 1860's, Dmitri Mendeleev created a way to organize the elements. He created the periodic table of elements. While he was in Saint Petersburg writing one of his two books, he attempted to classify the elements and noticed a pattern. With this pattern, he could predict the placement and qualities of undiscovered elements. We still use the periodic table of elements today. Alchemists are people who transform
common substances into something rare and valuable. They were first recognized, trying to turn common base metals into silver and gold. Alchemists developed a framework of theory, terminology and experimental process that are still used today. In 1913 Niels Bohr developed an interesting theory on the atom.
It is currently known as the Bohr Model. And it is slightly
different than the Rutherford Model. He also made many contributions to atomic structure (like the atomic nucleus) and quantum mechanics such as the correspondence principle (the basic tool of Old quantum theory) J.J Thompson is credited for discovering isotopes (1912)
and electrons in 1897. And also for inventing the mass
spectrometer. He was involved in many experiments
that included cathode rays. He also discovered the natral radioactivity of potassium. And demonstrated that hydrogen had only a single electron per atom. Werner Heisenburg is best known for his discovery of quantum
mechanics or the quantum theory which he developed in 1925.In 1922 he published his uncertainty principle.He also made contributions to the atomis nucleus, cosmic rays, ferromagnetism and subatomic particles. Erwin Schrodinger was heavily involved in experiments relating to electrical engineering, atmospheric electricity and atmospheric radioactivity. He did work on quantum machanics and in 1926 he created wave machanics and presented the Schrodinger equation. Country of Origin: Abdera Country of Origin: France Country of Origin: England Country of Origin: Country of Origin: Siberia but was a Russian chemist Country of Origin: Tubingen, Germany Country of Origin: Paris Country of Origin: Sweden Country of Origin: Glasgow Country of Origin: London, England Country of Origin: New Zealand Country of Origin: Poland Country of Origin: United States of America Country of Origin: France Country of Origin: Germany Country of Origin: France Country of Origin: Germany Country of Origin: USA Country of Origin: Greece Born:August 26 1743 Died: May 8 1794 Born: September 6th 1766 Died: July 27th, 1844 Born: December 13, 1780 Died: March 24, 1849 Born: August 19, 1830 Died: April 11, 1895 Born: January 20th, 1820 Died: November 14th, 1886 Lothar Meyer Died: June 30,1919 Lord Rayleigh Died: July 23, 1916 William Ramsey Born: November 26, 1837 Died: July 29, 1898 John Newland Born: August 30th, 1871 Died: October 19th, 1937 Ernest Rutherford Born: November 7th, 1867 Died: July 4th, 1934 Marie Curie Born: October 23rd, 1875 Died: March 23rd, 1946 Born: August 20 1779 Died: August 7 1848 Born: February 8th or January 27th 1834 Died: February 2nd or January 20th, 1907 Gilbert Lewis Dmitri Mendeleev Alchemists Country of Origin: Copenhagen, Denmark Died: November 18 1962 Born: October 7 1885 Niels Bohr Born: December 18 1940 Died: August 30 1940 J.J Thompson Born: March 22 1868 Robert A. Millikan Max Planck Born: April 23 1858 Died: October 4 1947 Louis de Broglie Born: August 15 1892 Died: March 19 1987 Erwin Schrodinger Born: August 12 1887 Died: February 4 1961 Werner Heisenburg Born: December 5 1901 Died: February 1 1976 Henri Becquerel Born: December 15 1852 Died: August 25 1908 On 1919, Aston built a mass spectograph that
enabled him to indentify 212 naturally occuring
isotopes (atoms with the same number of protons
and electrons)
He is also known for his enuncitation of the whole number rule. Country of Origin: United Kingdom Born: September 1 1877 Died: November 20 1945 Francis Aston Born: November 12,1842 Country of Origin: Essex, England Born: October 2, 1852 Created the law of octaves the law of octaves is just showing similar properties of every 8th element according to their atomic mass. Studied atom. He learned that they were indivisible and that each were exactly alike. He also discovered that all matter was made up of atoms.He drew a distinction between primary motion and its secondary effects,which is, impulse and reaction. This is the practically the base of the law of necessity, by which all things in nature are ruled. Jons Berzelius developed chemical notation. He also indentified
the chemical elements: silicon,selenium, thorium
and cerium. Students under his influence also discoverd lithium and vanadium.Berzelius is also credited for coming up for the
terms "catalysis", "polymer", "isomer" and "allotrope". He experimented with hydrogen which led to success for other chemist. Another find was that the properties of bromine seemed halfway between those of chlorine gas and the solid iodine. He also discovered the organic compound furfural and developed the separation of calcium and magnesium.Developed the Law of Triads in 1829 in an attempt to classify the chemical elements. This law organized elements in groups of 3 having similar properties and said that the average mass of the first and third equaled the mass of the second. This law is said to be true for a couple groups of elements. John Dalton was an English chemist, meteorologist, and physicist. He was most known for his atomic theory. In the 1800's while he was working for the Manchester Literary Society, he found the atomic theory and after many experiments, proved his theory. We still use his theory today. John Dalton also researched colour-blindness and contributed greatly to the theories. Country of Origin: Britain Died: December 19 1953 Max Plank discovered the theory of the quantum. This theory is about the atomic and subatomic processes. Max Plank also
led Albert Einstein to the theory of relativity which led to
the atomic bomb. Country of Origin:Austria-Hungary Aristotle was a great philospher. His philossoph
aims at universal, which he called the essence of
things. He declared the existance of only four
elements: fire, air, water and earth. In the year 1908, Robert. A. Milikan discovered
the mass of an electron by using charged oil
droplets. He received a Nobel Prize for this
discovery. He also created the photo electric effect.
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