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enable a Snowy Owl to
Fly The Snowy Owl The Snowy Owl is a type of bird that is able to fly, and their lifestyle is so dependent on flying. The reason that they depend on flight is because they catch prey by swooping down on smaller animals, and escape from predators who can't fly by taking off into the air. The four principles of air; lift, drag, weight, and thrust, all impact how the Snowy Owl fly's. Bernoulli was a man who discovered how an object is able to lift, and in this presentation you will learn more about him and his principle. You will also learn how thrust propels the Snowy Owl forward, drag causes resistance and pushes it back, weight is gravitational pull to the ground, and lift causes the Snowy Owl to stay up in the air. The Snowy Owls are incredible animals, and its a wonder who they live the way they do. The ready to fly into the world of the owls! Bernoulli's principle Section 1: What enables a Snowy Owl to fly Birds were meant to fly, so their bodies where built in certain ways. They have hollow bones, so are extremely light. Having light weight is important because it helps the Snowy Owl to achieve lift, and minimizes gravitational pull. If an object has a greater mass it is pulled to the ground by gravity. The feathers on the Snowy Owl weigh close to nothing, and do not add to the overall weight. Being only 4.25 pounds (on average), weight is not an issue. Another reason that the Snowy Owl is successful during flight is because of their unique diet. During flight, the Snowy Owl tires very quickly during takeoff, and after flying a very far distance. Their diet contains lots of proteins and carbohydrates, so they maintain lots of energy and are very healthy. Some of the food that they eat are lemmings, hare, vole, shrews, mice, and small birds. They need the energy to catch and escape from predators and catch prey. They also need to fly long distances when they migrate. The female Snowy Owls lay eggs, and therefore when they are pregnant don't carry the heavy weight of having a baby grow inside their bodies. Also, no Snowy Owls have bladders, and don't carry the extra weight of urine. They don't keep the urine inside their bodies, and urinate during flight at anytime. These are all natural characteristics of the Snowy Owl that enable them to fly. Without these characteristics, then they wouldn't be able to achieve flight. Section 2: Lift Lift is the Principle of flight that gives the Snowy Owl height, and allows them to push off into the air. Lift is created when the air pressure under the Snowy Owls wing is greater then the air pressure over the Snowy Owls wing. When the air speed over the wing is greater (because of the flapping or speed of the air) then it means that the air pressure will be lower. For the under side of the wing, when the air speed is slower it means that the air pressure is greater. The air speed over the wing needs to faster then in the surrounding area, while the air speed under the wing needs to be the same as the surrounding area. When this happens, lift is created. Bernoulli's Principle Bernoulli's Principle BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE Bernoulli's principle explains how an object is able to achieve lift, by air speed and air pressure. He states: that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. An inviscid fluid is a fluid that has no viscosity. So, this basically means that if you have for a fluid (in this case the fluid is air. Yes, air is a fluid.) so, when the speed of fluid (air) increases, then the pressure in the air will decrease. Also, when the fluid speed decreases (in the case of air) then the air pressure increases. So, lift is when the airspeed over the wing is faster then in the surrounding area, and the airspeed under the wing is the same or slower than the surrounding area. This means that the air pressure under the will would than be greater than the air pressure over the wing. Bernoulli studied fluids like air and water, and how they work. He was the man who found out how lift and flight are created. Without Bernoulli, there may not be such thing as flight! Snowy Owl in Flight Airfoil Shaped Wings Something else that helps the Snowy Owl achieve lift is when their wings have an airfoil shape. An airfoil wing is arched at the top, so that the air flows faster over the wing. At the bottom wing, it curves slightly upwards. This helps ensure that the air under the wings flows slower than or at the same speed as the air around wing. The feathers that the Snowy Owl have give the shape a very airfoil shape. We already know that the air speed should be faster over the wings, and the airfoil wing helps that. Having airfoil wings and maintaining lift is very crucial to the Snowy Owls survival and everyday lifestyle. They need to fly to travel to different destinations, catch prey, and escape from predators. Many birds have airfoil shaped wings, because they help all birds/owls achieve lift. Section 3: Thrust Thrust is the force In which allows the Snowy Owl to move through the air, and propel itself forward to create speed. When birds are flapping there wings, it not only creates lift but thrust as well. The principles of flight lift and thrust are connected, because the bird needs some speed in order to stay up in the air. Have you ever heard the term “stalling” used for airplanes? It means that the airplane still has height but has no speed. The airplane needs some speed to keep itself from dropping from the sky, so when it stalls then it is in danger of crashing if it doesn't gain any speed soon. The same thing applies from the Snowy Owl, because it need speed to stay up in the air. That is why the two principles of flight are connected. While the Snowy Owl is flying, the bird points the wing in a down stroke in order to create thrust or forward propulsion. The wings of the Snowy Owl need to be very flexible, because only the wings can be pointed downward during flight and not the whole bird. During down stroke, the bird produces lift and thrust. Thrust is because the wing is pushing back the air and therefore propelling the whole bird forward. When you are swimming, you push back the water with your hands and therefore you move through the water. Water and air are both liquids, so that outcome is similar. While the Snowy Owl is flying, the bird points the wing in a down stroke in order to create thrust or forward propulsion. The wings of the Snowy Owl need to be very flexible, because only the wings can be pointed downward during flight and not the whole bird. During down stroke, the bird produces lift and thrust. Thrust is because the wing is pushing back the air and therefore propelling the whole bird forward. When you are swimming, you push back the water with your body and therefore you can move through the water effectively. Water and air are both liquids, so the outcome is similar. Airplanes need thrust for a very similar reason that Snowy Owls do; so that they can propel themselves forward. Thrust is a very important aspect of flight, and without it the Snowy Owl wouldn't be able to fly. Section 4: Drag Section 4: Drag Drag is the force in which opposes thrust. It resists when the Snowy Owl is trying to create forward propulsion through thrust. Drag makes it very hard for an object like a bird or a plane to move through the air quickly. Drag can also be called air resistance, because the air resists an object moving through the air. When you are walking you are not able to feel the force of drag, but as you are wading through water you tire easily and feel the water pushing you back. Drag is created by the force between a solid object (the Snowy Owl ) and a liquid (such as air.) Drag happens because of the difference of velocity in the two substances. This is why when you are wading through water, there is force between your body and the water. Drag can also have to do with the skin friction between molecules of the air against the molecules of the Snowy Owl. When the Snowy Owl is moving through the air, Drag is created because the Snowy Owl is flying at an extremely fast speed.Drag is not such a big issue for Snowy Owls, because they can oppose it with lots of thrust. Think about it, you can oppose drag while wadding through water by performing a stroke, or kicking your feet. The same thing happens when a bird is flying through the air, they oppose drag by adding extra thrust.There are many factors that affect drag, like the object, the motion, and the air. The humidity or moisture of the air on that particular also affect drag. Like we adjust to the weather, birds are able to adjust to the weather conditions (such as humidity) by applying more or less thrust. The more moisture there is in the air, the more drag that there is, because liquid is what causes drag. Drag is one of the four major component which affect flight. Section 5: Weight Wouldn't it be great if humans could fly? Unfortunately we can't, because the principle of flight, gravity, is stopping us. Weight is the force which pulls us to the ground by gravity. The lighter you are, the less affected you are by the force of weight. The Snowy Owl can oppose weight with lift, the same way that drag can be opposed with thrust. Weight is a force, and it has a magnitude and a direction. The magnitude is the weight of the object being pulled down, and the direction is the ground. The force of weight doesn't affect the Snowy Owl because they are so light, on 4.25 pounds! Being so light, they hardly feel the gravitational pull at all. Showing the four principles of flight on an airplane. The same thing applies to the Snowy
Owl. Thank you for watching- I hope you learned a lot about the Snowy Owl, and how they are able to fly