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Copy of Exploring the Theories of Democratic Teaching: Rudolph Dreikurs
Transcript of Copy of Exploring the Theories of Democratic Teaching: Rudolph Dreikurs
Keshturi Sivam Dreikurs Theory:
Emphasizes the importance of meeting student's needs for acceptance-also highlighting the consequences of shaping behavior.
Demands effective teachers to have a genuine commitment.
Understand the difference between praise and encouragement & punishment and logical consequences. In order to commit to a democratic classroom,
a teacher must commit to several beliefs: Attention getting- should provide student with more attention on a more one-on-one level
Power seeking- avoid power struggle by giving options such as "pick up your books now or after class"
Revenge- already have established rules in place so all rules apply to every student, have private talk with student to discuss their behavior
Feelings of Inadequacy- talk to student, parents and guidance counselor to help improve self-esteem and socialization skills and encourage student to participate in learning activities Rudolf Dreikurs Biography Born February 8, 1897, Vienna - Died May 25, 1972, Chicago
Trained as a doctor
American psychiatrist and educator (Alfred Adler based)
Suggested that human misbehavior is the result of feeling a lack of belonging to one's social group. Key concepts of Dreikurs's Theory What is democratic teaching?
Students are given a choice rather than be forced to behave as directed. Mistaken goals All misbehavior results when students have one or more of the following "mistaken goals" for their behavior: Democratic teaching Teachers should be democratic,
rather than autocratic in their classroom procedures and social interactions with students. Encouragement Teachers should encourage students rather than praise them.
Encouragement: The act of encouraging someone to do something.
Praise: Words that shows approval and admiration for something. Logical consequences Teachers should establish classroom rules and implement logical consequences rather than punishments for broken rules and misbehavior. Punishment should seldom be used and, then, only when all logical consequences have been exhausted. Teachers roles and responsibilities Belief in the worth and dignity of every person
Belief in equality of all people
Belief in freedom of decision making
Belief that people can be trusted to make wise decisions Teachers can develop a democratic classroom by: Teachers need to view students as social beings who want to belong and to find an accepted place in society.
Instead of simply reacting to students behaviors by imposing punishments or rewards, they need to identify goals and misbehavior. I.e. Attention getting, power seeking, revenge, and helplessness. Teachers must allow and even encourage students to take an active, participatory role in developing classroom procedures.
Teachers need to use instructional strategies and build a sense of community within the classroom. Identifying and addressing mistaken goals of misbehavior: Using logical consequences: Teachers must establish simple, specific classroom rules
After establishing rules, teachers can establish consequences
All misbehavior seem to fall under one of the four mistaken goals. Teachers must identify the mistaken goal, then provide logical consequences and implement them. This emphasizes the importance of developing understanding, judgment, and responsibility in students by involving them in resolving classroom management problems. Teachers need to forego rewards and punishments in favor of logical consequences that result from misbehavior. Using encouragement Rather Than Praise Teachers should use more encouragement to boost confidence and self-esteem and less praise, because students can become dependent on the praise. Practical Applications of Dreikurs's Theories Evaluating Democratic Teaching and Management Advantages The establishment of order. Disadvantages Students can feel discouraged if punishment theory is not followed through. A final summary Next, we have a short video clip that illustrates how classrooms need to change dramatically because students currently act-up in an educational system that is not keeping up with student learning and desires. Although it doesn't directly address democratic teaching, we believe that the subtext of the video does relate to democratic teaching. Enjoy. 4 Key Concepts: Democratic Teaching Logical
Consequences Mistaken Goals Encouragement Teacher and students work together to make decision about how the class will function. Discipline is based on mutual respect, which motivates students to behave constructively because of their high sense of social interest. Traits of democratic
teacher Leadership Friendliness Inviting Nature Stimulation traits
of Ideas Cooperation Guidance Encouragement Acknowledgment The combination of kindness and firmness can be evoked. Democratic classroom will impart the leadership within the students from the teacher. Promoting a sense of belonging within a group. The rules and regulations in the classroom are implemented to ensure the effectiveness of the lessons. However, as a teacher, we need to give clear-cut directions for the actions expected of students. Wait until you have the attention of all class members before giving directions. Dreikurs’s Theory has evoked the involvement of student when establishing and maintaining rules. The student must always sense and respect that while you are a friend, you will not accept certain kinds of behavior. Firmness from teachers shows that they respect themselves. Kindness shows their respect for others. The democratic classroom will invite cooperation and eliminate destructive competition. Encouraging an atmosphere of freedom to explore, discover, and choose acceptable behavior through understanding the responsibilities and consequences associated with it. Establish a relationship with each individual based on trust and mutual respect. Dreikurs considers his approach to be democratic as teachers and students together decide on rules and consequences. They take joint responsibility for maintaining a classroom climate that is conducive to learning. Support of the group toward the misbehaved child will encourage them to keep on misbehaving.
For example, if we work to obtain a promise from a student. Most students will promise to change in order to free themselves from an uncomfortable situation. Requiring a student to give you a promise is a sheer waste of time. Democratic Theory may hurt their self-esteem and discourage them. Use threats as a method to discipline students.
Although some students may become intimidated and conform for the moment, threats have no lasting value. They do not lead to a change in a student's basic attitude. Adopt double standards.
We are keep comparing one student to another make them feel offended and irritated. Strategies & Approaches Ahmad and Aiman are 9 years old. Ahmad is a new student from a single parent home. He has been in trouble with teachers for constantly interrupting in class. However, Aiman is a well-like, model student who performs well in academic. The boys were grouped together for a project. Ahmad has shown delinquent behavior towards teachers and his classmates since coming to the new school. Case A Question: Do you know what is the main purposes in adolescent life?
Answer: To achieve SOCIAL STATUS and ACCEPTANCE Application of the theories: In order for Ahmad to achieve this social status, and because he has been in trouble before, it is evident that he acts out on the four of the “mistaken goals” of Dreikurs’ theory.
Feeling inadequate Case Study In this case, Ahmad is looking to belong & be recognized.
Because students are not getting the recognition that they feel they deserve.
If cannot get attention from positive behaviors, he will seek it with inappropriate behavior. Case Study
1. Seeking Attention Ahmad feels inferior, so he is trying to gain power.
He feels that once the battle has been joined, he has already won it.
Behavior characteristics consist of Ahmad repetitively displaying behavior to make him the centre of attention. Case Study
2. Seeking Power Retaliate for the way he feels he has been unfairly treated.
This is formed after a long series of discouragement (failing trials for attention-getting and power).
Example: hurting Aiman physically. Case Study
3. Seeking Revenge Inadequacy or helplessness is the most discouraged.
Lost all initiative of ever trying to belong to the group. Case Study
4. Feeling Inadequate apply technique such as moving the student away from the ﬁght and distracting him with other things (such as asking him to run an errand) could be helpful.
would not help him learn how to behave productively in a group. For the attention seeker: Techniques to minimize misbehavior: Ayu is quite docile in Miss Aisyah's class. She never disrupts the class and has little contact with other students. Regardless of Miss Aisyah's best efforts Ayu rarely completes an assignment. Ayu doesn't seem to care. She makes little effort. She is simply there - a mere physical presence in the classroom.
How would Dreikurs deal with Ayu? Case B Miss Aisyah should: Identify Ayu's mistaken goal.
Example: By checking her own reaction to Ayu's lethargy and by noting the reactions of other students.
If Ayu's mistaken goal is attention seeking, ignore her.
If Ayu's mistaken goal is gaining power, admit that Ayu has power
Example: "I can't make you do your work. What do you think I should do?“ If Ayu's goal is taking revenge, ask other members of the class to be especially encouraging to her when she displays any pleasing behaviour.
If Ayu's goal is to appear inadequate, encourage any favourable behaviour and give her continual support for it.
Gently confront Ayu with her mistaken goal and draw her into discussion about it and the related behavior. Apply technique such as moving the student away from the ﬁght and distracting him with other things (such as asking him to run an errand) could be helpful.
would not help him learn how to behave productively in a group. For the attention seeker: Techniques to minimize misbehavior: Time out.
Set a consequence
(stay back after school, sharing session with teacher) For the power and revenge seeker: Techniques to minimize misbehavior: Show great patience and attempt to prove the student that he is capable.
Positive self-talk or build conﬁdence within him. For the inadequate student Techniques to minimize misbehavior: