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Ethics of Organ Donation

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by

Eddie Jones

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Ethics of Organ Donation

Ethics of Organ Donation
Organ Donation:
- Issue that has come up a no. of times during the course of these ethical presentations.....

- Discuss and debate the issues associated with organ donation in greater detail......
Possible Changes:
- Legislative changes to increase organ donation transparency...

- Greater awareness among the public about organ donation.....

- ENCOURAGE ORGAN DONATION


- My research area aims at developing a new therapy for the treatment of renal disease....
Renal Transplantation currently one of the sole
ways of treating the patient........
Organ Donation
5) Organ Allocation:
- Ethical issues regarding the distribution of donated organs....
1) Payment??
- Should we allow payment for organ donations??

- Will this lead to an increase in the no. of
people willing to donate an organ?

- Will this jeopardize the ability of lower
socio-economic classes in obtaining an
organ if they so need?
2) Opt-out system for organ donation?
- Organ transplantation is usually a life- saving intervention....

- In the US, an average of 18 patients die a day awaiting transplant that cannot take place due to lack of organs..... (organdonor.gov)


3) Role of "next-of-kin":
- Under current circumstances, the next-of-kin of the diseased patient has the right to reverse the decision that person has made in choosing to donate his/her organs.......
4) Living Donation:
Living donor transplantation makes up approx. 30% of all U.S. kidney transplants....
Opinion....
- Once money is introduced, it may leave this system open to abuse....
People in desperate circumstances turning
to organ donation?

High price of organ, who foots this cost?
What do you think????
Proof that more organ donors are needed
Opt-out system??
Opinion....
- An opt-out system would greatly increase the organ pool for transplantation....
Potential to save millions of lives worldwide.
- Possible discrimination against certain ethnic/religious groups that do not favour transplantation??

Do you think this type of system should be introduced?
- Is this effectively going against that person's will/wishes?

- Should the next-of-kin have any say over the diseased person's organs once the decision has ALREADY been made?
Ethical Issues of Living transplantation:
Risk to the donor:
- Living transplantation should not take place in the presence of any significant risk to the donor...


Beneficence V Nonmaleficence:
Coercion:
- Has the donor been coerced into donating his/her organ?
- For the benefit of the donation to outweigh the
risk, significant evidence that the proposed recipient of the organ will care for the transplanted organ that they will receive must
be evident......
Best interest of the patient should be taken into account....
Any possible harm to the donor
must equally be taken into account....
- Certainty that the transplantation is been consented to completely autonomously is imperative.....
Opinion:
- Should the sickest patients in most need of an
organ be given priority ahead of those who are
ahead on the waiting list??

- Are some people more deserving of an organ
than others???
Possible Scenario:
- Alcoholic male in need of a liver transplant....

- Many other patients also in need of a transplant.....

- Should the patient with a history of severe alcoholism receive a transplant ahead of one with no history of alcoholism?
Do we need to re-evaluate
the ethical issues associated with
organ donation?
Many people willing to accept an organ when they are in grave need of one, yet are not willing to donate their organs.......
Facts about Organ Donation in Ireland:
National
Organ Procurement Service.

- Ireland has one of the highest rates of donation in the world: 20.3 donors pmp.

- All organ donations in Ireland are coordinated through the Irish Organ Procurement Office in Beaumont Hospital. Strict ethical guidelines protect the interests of organ donors, their families, and transplant recipients.

- All organ donors in Ireland are people who have died in hospital whilst on a ventilator. Death under these circumstances is determined by the absence of brain function. Brain stem tests are carried out to determine this. Two doctors perform the tests. The medical staff performing the tests must be independent of the transplantation.

- A person's decision to help other people through transplantation does not permit the removal of organs for any other purpose. An organ is never removed for transplantation unless a recipient has been identified.

- If you wish to become an organ donor after your death you should inform your next of kin of your intentions. Your next of kin would always be asked for consent in order for donation to proceed.

- Consent is never presumed, even if a donor card has been signed.
Full transcript