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HDP 264 Research Methods

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Daphne Lee

on 3 October 2013

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Transcript of HDP 264 Research Methods

Therefore, majority of the children (regardless of race) in Singapore would have received Mandarin education during their preschool years. These children may speak neither English nor Mandarin at home.
H is rejected.
HDP 264 Research Methods

Research Proposal

Research Title
Children's Primary Home Language affecting their L1 and L2 Reading Abilities.
Purpose of Research
Majority of preschools in Singapore:
Research Question
Dependent variables:
L1 (English) and L2 (Mandarin) Reading Abilities

Independent variable:
Child's Primary Home Language
Children's primary home language affects their L1 and L2 reading abilities.
Literature Review
Gauvin and Hulstijn (2010):
Explored a new technique to compare bilinguals' L1 and L2 reading speeds
Two groups of Dutch-L1 university students with differing English-L2 proficiency performed two reading tasks (story task and sentence task), each task in both L1 Dutch and L2 English
Font was included as an impeding factor to avoid any errors caused by direct translation between the two languages
Results showed that participants in the High Group were not slowed down as much in their reading speed caused by the degraded font as compared to participants in the Low Group.
The study offers insights to the relationship between the students’ proficiency and reading ability in a language.

Several studies have also found that children's primary home language has a significant effect on their acquisition of a second language (Gathercole & Thomas, 2009; Scheele et al., 2010; Dixon, Wu, & Daraghmeh, 2012)
Research Design
Possible Results

Ang Hui Teng [02]
Lee Hui Ling Daphne [18]
Teo Hui Deng [35]
Done By:
- Mother Tongue = Mandarin
- 439 kindergartens (Ministry of Education, 2013)
Phase 1:
Preparation of Research
Phase 2:
Conducting of Research
Phase 3:
Submission of Research
Hypothesis: Children's primary home language has an effect on their L1 (English) and L2 (Chinese) reading abilities.
Correlational study to identify the relationship between children's home language and their L1 and L2 reading abilities
H is not rejected.
Primary home language does not affect children's reading ability development.

Other possible factors that affect reading ability development:
Children’s own motivation & determination in learning

Data Collection
Visit 15 preschools
5 PAP Community Foundation
5 NTUC First Campus
5 private preschools
Procedures & Tasks
Data Preparation Procedures
H is not rejected
Data Analysis Procedures
PCF and NFC represent the masses of Singapore
Increase the population validity of the research results
Should not neglect private preschools
Children between 5 and 6 years old
Parents to complete a survey
Exclude: children with special needs and
attending/have attended any tuition(s)
Random sampling size of 60
12 children from each language group
English, Chinese & Chinese Dialects, Malay, Tamil & Tamil Dialects, Others (other languages other than those stated)
30 minutes - L1 (English) test
15 minutes - Short break
30 minutes - L2 (Mandarin) test
H is rejected.
Primary home language is key factor in reading ability development.

Scribner, 2013; Scheele, Leseman, & Mayo, 2010; Dixon, Wu, & Daraghmeh, 2012
Second language acquisition is heavily influenced by exposure to the different languages.

Population of this study = children who have had L2 (Mandarin) classes

Other factors

Blossom Edugroup (2013). Blossom edugroup: The preferred choice for quality childcare & preschool
education. Retrieved from http://www.blossomedugroup.com.sg/
Chuang, H., Joshi, R. M., & Dixon, L. Q. (2011). Cross-language transfer of reading ability:
Evidence from Taiwanese ninth-grade adolescents. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(1), 97-119. doi: 10.1177/1086296X11431157
Dixon, L. Q., Wu, S., & Daraghmeh, A. (2012). Profiles in bilingualism: Factors
influencing kindergartners’ language proficiency. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(1), 25-34. doi: 10.1007/s10643-011-0491-8
Gathercole, V. C. M. & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual first-language development:
Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Cambridge University Press, 12(2), 213-237. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909004015
Genius Hive Pre-School (2013). Genius Hive Pre-School: A care and learning centre in nurturing great minds. Retrieved
from http://geniushive.edu.sg/
Gauvin, H. S. & Hulstijn, J. H. (2010). Exploring a new technique for comparing
bilinguals’ L1 and L2 reading speed. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 84-103. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ887881.pdf
Learning Vision (2013). Learning vision: Where is learning is a joyful experience. Retrieved from http://
Little Skool House (2011). Our centres. Retrieved from http://www.littleskoolhouse.com/our-centres.html?of=at-semb-
MindChamps (2012). Contact us. Retrieved from http://www.mindchampspreschool.org/contact-us
Ministry of Education (2013). List of MOE registered kindergartens. Retrieved from
My First Skool (2011). All centers. Retrieved from http://www.myfirstskool.com/pages/all_centres
PAP Community Foundation (2013). List of PCF kindergarten with pre-nursey. Retrieved from http://www.pcf.org.sg/
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, M. Y. (2010). The home language environment
of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(1), 117-140. doi: 10.1017/S0142716409990191
Scribner, E. (2013). Exploring different factors of language development. Retrieved
from http://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=lib_awards_2013_docs
The Sunbird Development Centre (2003). Contact us. Retrieved from http://www.sunbird.com.sg/
Wang, C. Q. (2013). Purple. Singapore: AFCC Publications.
L2 (Mandarin) Test

Ministry of Education

Data will be examined for:
Correlation between independent variable and dependent variables
Combine and organise the data into a table
L1 (English) Test
Flash cards with words and phrases taken from a bilingual book
Title: Purple
Author: Wang Chu Qiao

Font type: Century Gothic (English words) KaiTi (Chinese characters)

Font size: 14

Size of flash card: 20cm by 10cm
Does children's primary home language affect their L1 and L2 reading abilities?
The amount of input in a particular language is strongly related to a young bilingual child's proficiency in it; the more input a child is exposed to, the better performance on skills in that language. (Scheele, Leseman, & Mayo, 2010; Dixon, Wu, & Daraghmeh, 2012).
Chuang, Joshi and Dixon (2011):
Conducted a study that reported findings that Taiwanese ninth-grade students who uses Mandarin as their primary home language were able to acquire good L2 English reading ability.
Other studies have also reported the reliance of L2 reading ability on the proficiency of L1 reading ability.
These findings conflict with other studies that found that students with a low exposure to a language tended to acquire poorer reading skills in it.

"A child's home is the first place that they are exposed to language" (Sribner, 2013)
Literature searches in children’s second language acquisition have failed to discover any research on how children’s primary home languages affect their learning of a second language in school.
In Singapore, children begin to receive Mandarin education when they enter preschools.
Therefore, investigation on how children's primary home languages affect their L1 and L2 reading abilities in their early stages of language development is essential.
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