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Architecture overview: ARTE 260
Transcript of Architecture overview: ARTE 260
SURVEY OF ARCHITECTURE...
What is meant by architecture?
(may seem silly to ask, but let's go there...)
"The process and the product of designing and constructing buildings. Architectural works with a certain indefinable combination of design quality and external circumstances may become cultural symbols and / or be considered works of art."
specific method of construction, characterized by the features that make it notable.
may include such elements as form, method of construction, materials, and regional character.
can be classified as a chronology of styles which changes over time.
may reflect changing fashions, changing beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas and new technology which make new styles possible.
Some different architectural styles you might recognize:
Ancient Americas: Mayan
Chichen Itza, Yucatan (600 C.E)
Ancient Egyptian Architecture
Temple of the Hours at Edfu
Egyptian Architectural Capitals
(we'll come back to these later...)
Some elements of Islamic Style
Four iwan plan and prayer niche (facing Mecca)
Blue Mosque, Turkey (1616 C.E.)
Mahabodhi Temple- Bihar, India (5-6th c. C.E.)
And of course GREEK
(no, not THAT Greek...)
Parthenon- Athens, Greece (447 B.C.E)
Temple to Goddess Athena
Three Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Greek Revival Architecture:
Q: Where do we see this?
Other architectural elements:
Post and Lintel
Stonehenge- c. 3,000 B.C.E.
Arch, Cross Vault, Barrel Vault
Fallingwater, Frank Lloyd Wright
20th and 21st Century Styles
Founded by Walter Gropius
Became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design
Closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazis in 1933
One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology.
Art Deco (1925-1940s)
first appeared in France during the 1920s
flourished internationally during the 30s and 40s, then waned in the post-World War II era
combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials
characterized by rich colors, bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation
Chrysler Building- William Van Alen (1928-30)
Art Deco in Popular Culture
Mid-century Modern (roughly 1933-1965)
Many consider Frank Lloyd Wright's principle movement of organic architecture combined with Arts and Crafts as an American jumping point for the aesthetic of Mid-Century Modern...
characterized by clean simplicity and integration with nature
was frequently employed in residential structures with the goal of bringing modernism into America's post-war suburbs
emphasized creating structures with ample windows and open floor-plans with the intention of opening up interior spaces and bringing the outdoors in
utilized then-groundbreaking post and beam architectural design that eliminated bulky support walls in favor of walls seemingly made of glass
Pass Le Corbusier! (b. 1887 d. 1965)
0r "The Father of Modern Architecture"
pioneer in studies of modern high design
was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities
Villa Savoye (1928-31) Paris, France
Notre Dame du Haut (1954)
Brutalism (1950's-mid 70's)
striking repetitive angular geometries
concrete is the material most widely associated with Brutalist architecture
rough, blocky appearance
exposure of the building's functions
an architectural philosophy, rather than a style, was often also associated with a socialist utopian ideology
U/SC Humanities Building!
Postmodern Architecture (NOW!)
Auldbrass in Beaufort, SC
Columbia, SC is home to a great number of historic buildings and a variety of architectural styles and monuments. Part of your task this week is to identify and write about ONE of these historic buildings- using relevant vocabulary and rich description. Ready, set, GO!