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Ginger Davis

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of ADDIE


A is for Analyze
D is for Design
D is for Development
E is for Evaluate
I is for Implement
Date of Development
Who is the audience and their characteristics?
Identify the new behavioral outcome?
What types of learning constraints exist?
What are the delivery options?
What are the online pedagogical considerations?
What is the timeline for project completion?

Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy
Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
Create storyboards
Design the user interface and user experience
Prototype creation
Apply visual design (graphic design)

Develop communication packs for program stakeholders.
Develop session plans, trainer guides, learner guides and trainer and participant resources.
Develop trainer and on-the-job aids.
Develop coaching/mentoring guides and resources.
Develop technology infrastructure and software.
Develop participant assessments.
Develop project and program evaluation instruments.
Conduct pilot program to test that program meets client requirements.
Review implementation and evaluation costs, effort required and schedule.
Rollout program communications to stakeholders.
Produce program materials and aids.
Install technology infrastructure and services.
Set up administrative databases and systems.
Install on-the-job aids.
Prepare coaches/mentors.
Book venue, accommodation and travel arrangements.
Set up venue and accommodation.
Schedule participants.
Conduct training sessions.
Implement training transfer strategies.
Collect training program evaluation data.
Collect project evaluation data.
Review training program performance (number of employees trained, percent participants passed, participant satisfaction).
Review project performance (cost, schedule, scope, stakeholder satisfaction, project team satisfaction).
Report program and project performance results.

One of the attractions of the ADDIE Model is its flexibility. For example, it can be used with both individualized and traditional instruction.
In addition, its phases are frequently modified to suit user needs, and it can be employed in combination with other models such as Rapid Application Development (RAD) and the Successive Approximation Model (SAM).
All ID’s recognize ADDIE, regardless of background.
The Centre for Educational Technology department at Florida State University designed Addie Model for the U.S. Army in 1975. It was strictly a linear or waterfall model.
Florida State University initially developed the "ISD" (Instructional Systems Development) or “SAT” (Systems Approach to Training) to explain the processes involved in the formulation of an instructional systems development (ISD) program for the U.S. Army. Subsequently all the U.S. Armed Forces adopted it. The ISD and SAT models formed the ADDIE model. The acronym ADDIE was not technically used until much later (Hannum 2005).

The five phases of the ADDIE model were based on a previous ISD model developed by the U.S. Air Force (1970) called the Five Step Approach. Currently, the ADDIE model is one of the most universally recognized ID models ever created (Clark 2012).

The ADDIE process can be as complex or as simple as an ID (or team) wants to make it. The original sequence was very linear. However, the current ADDIE model was never meant to be a linear process. Today, the model is more spiral meaning it is consultative, collaborative and iterative. Each stage has a clear intention and a set of distinct questions to target. This means that “even if the individual applies ADDIE at the middle of the project, it will still retain its value and be able to provide a sense of structure to the whole program (Forest 2014)”.

History of ADDIE
Current Model
ADDIE = Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate
The most common disadvantage of ADDIE is that it is considered a linear process for instructional system design and more costly and time consuming than the newer approaches referred to as Agile development. This complaint has led to innovative approaches that follow the Agile models: Rapid Application Development (RAD) and the Successive Approximation Model (SAM).
Evaluation is at the end when it could be used earlier in process to avoid duplicate work.


Clark, D.R. (2012). Design Methodologies: instructional, thinking, agile, system, or x problem? Retrieved from http://nwlink.com/~donclark/design/design_models.html and http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/addie.html

Dick, W., and Carey, L. (2014). The Systematic Design of Instruction. Pearson Education, 8th ed.
Forest, Ed. (2014). Framework and Theories. The ADDIE Model: Instructional Design. Retrieved from http://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/

Hannum W. H. (2005). lnstructional Systems Development: A 30 Year Retrospective. Retrieved from http://dose.wallacehannum.com/ISD%20Retrospective.pdf

Hannum, W. H., & Hansen, C. D. (1989). Instructional systems development in large organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance Improvement, 42(5).


1. Little known fact: Who coined the acronym ADDIE?
According to Wallace Hannum (one of the original developers of the ADDIE model in 1975), they did not originally call the ISD model ADDIE. In fact, there is still mystery and misperception about who was the first person to coin the acronym ADDIE to this day.

“At some time during the last 30 years, someone used the first letter of each phase to coin the acronym 'ADDIE' to refer to the ISD model (Molenda, 2003). Molenda was not able to identify the origin of the term 'ADDlE,' and to this day I still don't know the origin of this term, but it did not emerge from the original ISD design team. Now it is more common to hear people speak and write about the ADDIE model than the ISD

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