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Considering the language of The Crucible.
Transcript of Considering the language of The Crucible.
Arthur Miller wrote this play for TWO reasons.
1. HE WANTED TO HIGHLIGHT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALEM AND AMERICA.
DID YOU KNOW?
That Miller originally wrote the play in verse?
He decided it was artificial and so researched the language of Salem 1692 to create authenticity.
KEY LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE PLAY
1. Use of ldated/archaic words
2. Use of double negatives
3. Unfamiliar use of the verb 'to be'
4. Changing the word order
5. Colloquialisms such as elision
6. Religious rhetoric
KING JAMES BIBLE
2. HE WANTED A CHALLENGE IN
TERMS OF LINGUISTICS.
Otherwise known as the AUTHORISED VERSION (AV)
FINISHED IN 1611
verbs often appear in forms which were already falling out of use at the time of the translation
- as digged (for "dug"), gat and gotten (for "got"), bare (for "bore") spake (for "spoke") clave (for "cleft" or cleaved) and wist (for "knew")
finite verbs in the third person and present tense use the -(e)th rather than -s ending
archaic forms of nouns appear
— such as brethren ("brothers"), kine ("cattle") and twain ("two")
second person plural pronouns preserve the older distinction between subjective "ye" and objective "you"
(as in John 15.16, "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you")
A FINITE VERB is a verb with a TENSE
A NON-FINITE VERB is a verb without
So... in KING JAMES SPEAK
My glass runneth over!
he indefinite article is used in the form an before nouns which start with h
("an hundred, an helpe, an heap, an Hebrew")
word order is often in an archaic form, with adjectives following nouns and adverbs following verbs;
negatives rarely use the auxiliary verb do
, so we find "they knew him not" for "they did not know him",
the masculine possessive form his is used, rather than neuter its
— (as in "if the salt has lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted")
prepositions are used in senses different from those in modern English
A subjective pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence—it performs the action of the verb.
The subjective pronouns are he, I, it, she, they, we, and you.
spends ages looking out the window.
went to the planetarium.
An objective pronoun acts as the object of a sentence
—it receives the action of the verb. The objective pronouns are her, him, it, me, them, us, and you.
Cousin Eldred gave
Take a picture of
PREPOSITION: A preposition sits before a noun (or a pronoun) to show the noun's relationship to another word in the sentence. (If that explanation is too complicated, it might help you to think of a preposition as a word which describes anywhere a mouse could go.)
Brace yourself for the toughest lesson yet...
be, do, have, will
a, an rather than the
You will be given several line numbers.
1. Translate your lines in to modern English
2. Can you see any of the features we have discussed?
In small groups think of a nursery rhyme or fairy tale.
TRANSFORM it into the language of KING JAMES BIBLE!!
THIS LANGUAGE WAS TYPICAL OF THE 1692 TRIALS. IT, IN TURN WAS DICTATED BY THE BIBLE OF THE TIME