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Copy of Nanomaterials Presentation

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ADarsh Goswami

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Nanomaterials Presentation

The Application of Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery
Hazwan Yatimi bin Hermain (0924475)
Muhamad Ridzham bin Mohd Rodzi (1018001)

Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs), effective drug delivery carrier.
Localized and targeted delivery
Controlled delivery
Increased efficiency
Enhanced circulation time and biodistribution
Ability to cross biological membranes
The nanoparticles are effective for drug delivery -- the delivery of the medicine to the body -- because they can very precisely find diseased cells and carry the medicine to them. This means that you can suffice with less dosage and thereby fewer side effects," explains Professor Moein Moghimi from the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen.
Various polymers used because they can effectively deliver the drug to a target site and thus increase the therapeutic benefit.
Nanoparticles - Simplest form of structures with sizes varying in the range from 10 to 1000 nm.
Biodegradable - The ability to of being decomposed by biological agents.
Methods of Drug Delivery
Antifungal infections for cancer patients
Drug: Amphotericin B
Name of Product: AmBisome
Approved in 1997
Chemotherapy agent for ovarian cancer
Drug: Doxorubicin
Name of Product: Doxil
Reduced cardiotoxicity
Chemotherapy for breast cancer
Drug: Paclitaxel
Name of Product: AmBisome
Approved in 2005
How the system works?
Cancer treatment
Why it is better than chemotherapeutic?
In chemotherapy, the uses of the drug uncontrolled by the others element
Which the drug cannot sustain longer inside the body cause it released early before reach the target area ( cancer cell )
It cause the drug already invade by antibody and react to the active cell such as blood cell, stomach cell, hair, and etc. (patient symptom)
Thus ,chemo can kill both normal cell n cancer cell
But not for therapy by nanoparticle (polymeric), it improving cancer therapy and reducing the harmful nonspecific side effects of chemotherapeutics.
Tumors grow in blood vessel :
Tumors have “leaky” blood vessels, which allow relatively large nano-sized “pills” to enter.
This is called Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) Effect .
Normal blood vessels are not “leaky” and nano-particles are prevented from entering.
This allows one to selectively target tumors.
The new research has shown that the coating of the nanoparticle surface has great influence on the activation of the immune system -- the particle's polymer coating can be designed in various ways, and the form can drastically change the body's immune response.
"Drug delivery with nanoparticles camouflaged as water soluble polymers has proven very effective. One way of delivering drugs safely to diseased sites in the body is to encapsulate them in small polymeric particles in similar size to viruses. However, when injected into the blood these particles are intercepted by the body's defence system. This can be overcome by camouflaging the surface of these nanocarriers with water soluble polymers. This makes the surface 'water-like' and less visible to the immune system," says Professor Moghimi.
Polymer based nanoparticle for drug delivery
Hydrolysis of ester bond; degradation products of PACA which are alkylalcohol and poly(cyanoacrylic acid, are eliminated by kidney filtration.
Despite several advancements in chemotherapy, the real therapy of cancer still remains a challenge.
The development of new anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of cancer has not kept pace with the progress in cancer therapy, because of the nonspecific drug distribution resulting in low tumour concentrations and systemic toxicity.

The main hindrance for the distribution of anti-cancer agents to the tumour site is the highly disorganized tumour vasculature, high blood viscosity in the tumour, and high interstitial pressure within the tumour tissue.
Recently, several approaches such as drug modifications and development of new carrier systems for anti-cancer agents have been attempted to enhance their tumour reach.

Approaches such as drug delivery through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have resulted in a significant improvement in concentration in tumors, while approaches such as drug-carrier implants and microparticles have resulted in improvement in local chemotherapy of cancer.
Most polymeric nanoparticles are biodegradable and biocompatible.
Adopted as a preferred method for nanomaterial drug delivery.
Relevant nanoparticle formulations include those made from:
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer
Polylactic acid (PLA)
Polyglycolic acid (PGA)
Poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) (PACA)
The polymer matrix prevents drug degradation and may also provide management of drug release from these nanoparticles. Varying the drug-to-polymer ratio and molecular weight and composition of the polymer can modify the extent and level of drug release.
Time-consuming preparation process.
High skilled workers needed to monitor the production.
May cause side effects such as chest pain, lose of appetite, light-headed feeling.
Adsorption - The adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface.
Biodistribution - A method of tracking where compounds of interest travel in an experimental animal or human subject.Transdermal - A route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Treatment of :
Cancer cells
Fungal and parasite infection
Types of Nanoparticles:
What is cancer?
Harmful cell that was develop into malignant tumors and invade nearby the part of body
The cancer cell may also spread to more distant part of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream.
There are over 200 different known cancers that afflicts humans.
Usually women easily to have cancer cell cause of women body have a lot of leaky part.
Cancer attack at the most leaky part
In cancer treatments, nanoparticles can further rely on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect caused by leaky tumor vasculatures for better drug accumulation at the tumor sites .
These benefits have made therapeutic nanoparticles a promising candidate to replace traditional chemotherapy, where intravenous injection of toxic agents poses a serious threat to healthy tissues and results in dose-limiting side effects.
Injection of nanoparticle drug delivery
What are the differences?
Drug delivery using nanoparticle
The drug is carried by liposome
Liposome not coated
recognized by immune system.(major problem)
Killed both normal n cancer cell
The drug released uncontrol
Give side effect on the patient.
Drug delivery through liposome carrier
Coated by stealth particle(mostly lipid particles that incorporate the polymers like polyethylene glycol (PEG) gangliosides coating)- invisible to macrophages
remain in blood for long time and also offers protection from immune system
Biodegradation-control how and where a drug is released, impacting treatment efficacy as well as potential toxicity to nontarget tissues from nanoparticle exposure.
Graph immune system can be maintained at therapeutic range
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