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Copy of Transportation Management

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Eva Maria Schmack

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Transportation Management

"The Role of Transportation in Supply Chain Managements"
MANFAAT
* Efisiensi Produksi & Biaya
* Meningkatkan Rantai Nilai
(Value Chain) dengan Deliver
Right Product, in the Right Place,
in the Right Time
* Customer Satisfaction
* Menjadi Keunggulan Daya Saing
(Competitive Advantage)
Rumus
Menghitung Biaya Transportasi
SHIPPING MODE
Komponen Utama dalam Transportasi
(1)
Mode / Carrier Selection
-> pemilihan mode transportasi, pertimbangkan biaya, kapasitas/ volume, kecepatan, ketepatan, & risiko
(2)
Shipping Mode & Document
-> Free On Board, Free On Destination
(3) Route Scheduling -> Rute
(4) Costing
(5) Internal Control & Audit
GARIS BESAR PERANAN TRANSPORTASI DALAM PERUSAHAAN
How to Choose Suitable Transport ??
Pentingnya Manajemen Transportasi
Sektor transportasi telah berkembang pesat hingga 7x lipat sejak 1971
Transportasi menciptakan Utilitas Nilai (Place/Value Utility)
Transportasi berkontribusi pada Utilitas Waktu (Time Utility)
Transportasi memegang peranan dalam menciptakan kepuasan pelanggan
Jika dikelola secara Efisien mampu mengurangi biaya variabel, sehingga mengurangi Total Biaya
Transportasi menjadi lebih penting / bernilai, ketika barang/produk lebih kecil nilainya, contoh : pasir, batu bara
1. Product-Related Factors
2. Market-Related Factors

Faktor yang mempengaruhi Biaya Transportasi
Product-Related Factors
(1) Density-
products weight-to-volume ratio
(2) Stowability
(3) Ease or difficulty
in handling
(4) Liability

Market-Related Factors
(1) Degree of intramode &
intermode competition
(2) Location of markets/distance
(3) Government regulation
(4) Balance & Imbalance of
freight traffic in a market
(5) Seasonality of product
movements
(6) Domestic / internationally
Depends on size, shape, fragility
Greater liability = greater cost
Liability => easily damaged products, high rates of theft/pilferage, high-value-to-weight-ratios, hazardous products
Transportation Pricing
Cost-of-Service v.s. Value-of-Service

Cost-of-Services
Berdasarkan :
* Distance -> Jarak
* Volume -> Waktu
Value-of-Services
Berdasarkan :
* Market demand -> pasar
* Situasi persaingan
Common Carriers
Contract Carriers
Exempt Carriers
Private Carriers
Mode
Transportasi
(1) Motors
(TL, LTL)
(2) Rail
(3) Air
(4) Water
(5) Pipeline
(6) Intermoda
DEFINISI
"The process of moving an item from point A to point B "
Suatu proses memindahkan produk dari titik A ke titik B
"Safe, efficient, reliable, and sustainable movement of persons and goods over time and space"

INBOUND & OUTBOUND
INBOUND LOGISTIC
OUTBOUND LOGISTIC
DAMPAK
PROBLEMA
TRANSPORTASI
MASA KINI
* Financing / Pendanaan
* Congestion / Kemacetan
* Infrastruktur
* Faktor Keamanan
* Faktor Populasi dan Kepadatan
* Terbatasnya bahan bakar ->
harga minyak melambung
* Isu lingkungan (polusi)
* Faktor Alam (bencana)

Kecepatan, kapasitas, jenis dan biaya dari sarana transportasi yang tersedia di suatu area sangat mempengaruhi kondisi ekonomi di area tersebut (jalan tol, rel, bandara, pelabuhan, transit)

Negara yang memiliki sarana transportasi yang maju dengan mudah menjadi
leader
dalam industri dan perdagangan
Peranan Transportasi dalam Manajemen Rantai Pasokan
oleh :
Hadi 81120023
Liana 81120025

Akar dari Bahasa Latin ->
Transportare

Trans -> seberang / sebelah lain
Portare -> membawa / memindahkan
REFERENSI
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Bigham, T.C. dan M.J. Roberts. 1952.
"Transportation: Principles and Problems".
Mc Graw Hill Book Company Inc. New York.
Andel, Tom. 1997.
“Information Supply Chain: Set and Get Your Goals"
. Transportation and Distribution Journal,Vol. 38, No. 2, hal.33
Webster, Frederick E., Jr. 1992.
“The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporation". Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, Oktober, hal.1-17.
Cooper, Martha C. dan Lisa M. Ellram.1993.
“Characteristics of Supply Chain Management and the Implication for Purchasing and Logistics Strategy,”
The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, hal.13-24.
Stocks, James R. dan Douglas M. Lambert. 2001.
“Strategic Logistic Management".
Edisi ke-4. Mc. Graw Hill International Edition. New York.
PERBANDINGAN ANALISA BIAYA
Perusahaan yang tidak mengembangkan sistem transportasi logistik yang efisien telah kalah satu langkah dalam penekanan biaya
Planning ->
Perencanaan, program, target
Procurement ->
Pengadaan persediaan dari hulu
Manufacturing ->
Proses produksi
Marketing & Selling ->
Penjualan dan Pemasaran
Distribution ->
Distribusi ke hilir
Information Technology ->
Sistem Informasi & Software
Bagian perusahaan yang terkait dengan transportasi
Menurut Chang (1988) transportasi memegang peranan penting dalam logistik hingga 29,4%
Tseng, Yung-Yu; Wen-Long Yue, dan Michael A P Taylor. 2005.
"The Role of Transportation in Logistic Chain. Journal of Proceeding of the Eastern Asia Society for -Transportation Studies"
, Vol.5, hal. 1657-1672. Australia.
Kapan Transportasi diperlukan ?
TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT
Loading & Unloading
Line-Haul -> jalur antrian
Vehicle Routing

Sorting
Vehicle Maintenance
one to one, one to many, many to many, zone/pooling
Chang, Y.H. 1998.
"Logistical Management"
. Hwa-Tai Bookstore Ltd. Taiwan .

Fair, M.L. and Williams, E.W. 1981.
"Transportation and Logistics"
. Business Publication
Inc. Amerika Serikat.
Product
Place /
Customer Service
Levels
Warehousing
Cost
Inventory
Carrying Cost
Price
Promotion
Transportation
Cost
Order Processing & Information Cost
Lot Quantity
Cost
Transportation Services Impacts on Customer Service Levels
(1) Konsistensi dalam memanage transportasi kepada
konsumen menciptakan ketergantungan/dependability
(2) Time-in Transit -> Waktu transit / waktu yang diperlukan dalam
pengiriman barang
(3) Market Coverage -> Luas area yang dilayani, door to door
(4) Flexibilitas -> Kemampuan melayani special order, jumlah quota/
minimum order serta variasi produk
(5) Rasio dan risiko kehilangan & Kerusakan barang selama
pengiriman
WARNING !!!
HATI-HATI DALAM MEMILIH JENIS & MODE TRANSPORTASI
Mengenal Jenis-jenis Carrier & Shipping, serta memahami kelebihan dan kekurangannya
Carrier -> party that moves or transports the product
Vehicle-related cost
Fixed operating cost
Trip-related cost
Shipper ->party that requires the movement of the product between two points in the supply chain
Transportation cost
Inventory cost
Facility cost

Klasifikasi Jasa Angkutan Secara Hukum
Perbandingan Kinerja dari Mode-Mode Transportasi Domestik di AS
Full transcript