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Sport Nutrition- Energy intake and expenditure

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Cheri Williams

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of Sport Nutrition- Energy intake and expenditure

Sport Nutrition - Energy intake and Expenditure
Assignment 3:
P3 Describe energy intake and expenditure in sports
Performance
M1 Explain energy intake and expenditure in sports performance
P4 Describe energy balance and its importance in relation to sports performance
M2 Explain the importance of energy balance in relation to sports performance
D1 Analyse the effects of energy balance on sports performance

KFC Original Recipe
Chicken x3 pieces
Jaffa cake per cake= 45
Rice Krispy Square=100
Cereal Bar=300
Big Mac = 545
KFC = 879

Rate the Calories
Lowest to highest
Energy is measured in calories and joules (Joule - Is the international unit for energy) We use calories in Britain.
Kilocalories: Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 calories
Kilojoules: Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules

Measures
Kilocalories:
Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 calories

Kilojoules:
Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules

To convert a calorie into a joule you need to use the following calculation:

1 Calorie = 4.2 Joules

1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.2 Kilojoules (kjoules)

Convert the following foods from calories into joules:

Example-Pizza slice = 238 (Kcals) = 999.6 (kj)
Packet of Crisps = 133
Mars Bar = 187
Banana = 142
Apple = 53
Meatball Mariana Sub (6”) = 520
Deep-fried Mars Bar = 932

558.6
785.4
596.4
222.6
2184
3914.4


Packet of Crisps = 133
Mars Bar = 187
Banana = 142
Apple = 53
Meatball Mariana Sub (6”) = 520
Deep-fried Mars Bar = 932

Joules:
Answers
Nutrient Energy Values
Different nutrients provide different energy amounts:

1 gram of Carbohydrate = 4 kcals – 17kj
1 gram of Protein = 4 kcals – 17kj
1 gram of Fat = 9 kcals – 38kj
Spagbol:
26g fat
90g carbs
36g protein
=_______kj
Exercise Intensity Exercise Duration Fuel Used
Maximal Sprint Short Carbs
Low-Moderate Up to 2 hours Carbs/Fat
(equally)
Severe Prolonged Less Carbs
More Fat
Fuel and Exercise
*Protein sources tapped into during latter stages of endurance events if fat and carb stores are low
Body Weight
Body weight, more precisely referred to as body mass,
Some individuals have problems controlling their body weight, often resulting in obesity.
Some sports are categorised based on body weight:-
-Can you think of any examples?
-Can you think of sports where a certain body weight or
t
type may be required?
Energy and nutrient requirements may also be expressed relative to body mass....
When exercising:
Energy used is directly proportional to exercise intensity
When energy is used up and not replaced, muscles are unable to work at the same intensity
Somatotyping - recognises three basic body shapes (most common method of classification)
heavy build
rounded shape
tends to gain weight

A muscular build
large bone structure

a slim build
long limbs
delicate bone structure
low body fat and muscle content

Lean body mass:
Body composition refers to lean body mass and body fat that makes up total body weight
Includes bone, muscle, water, connective and organ tissues
Percentage Body Fat:
Body fat includes essential and non-essential stores
Unlike basic body type, body composition can be altered
Exercise can increase lean body mass, and decrease body fat
Methods of assessing body fat include:
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (body fat %)
Skinfold analysis
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Hip to waist ratio
Hydrodensitomery

Task
You are now going to investigate body fat measurement techniques.
Get into pairs log on to a tablet and use the internet to find information (ie how to complete a measurement, how to calculate a score, classifications)
Relate to an athlete of your choice.
What is energy balance?
RDA cals:
Men 2500
Women 2000
You are in energy balance when the amount of energy you take in (energy input) equals the amount you expend (energy expenditure).
What happens to your weight if you are in energy balance????

Four major components to energy output:
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) - 60%-75% of total energy output
Dietary thermogenesis (DT) - processes of digestion, absorption, transport and storage of food
Physical activity (PA) - most variable component of total energy expenditure
Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) - expenditure dependent on environmental or physiological stresses placed on the body
What do you think positive energy balance and negative energy balance is?

Basal Metabolism???
To estimate energy requirements, you need to calculate basal metabolic requirements (BMR)
Activity: in pairs

Choose two different sports! e.g. footballer & gymnast

Describe the impact a negative & positive energy balance could have on performance.
Learning check:
Negative or positive energy balance needed for this athlete?
Men:
10 - 17 years BMR = 17.7 x W + 657
18 - 29 years BMR = 15.1 x W + 692
30 - 59 years BMR = 11.5 x W + 873

Women:
10 - 17 years BMR = 13.4 x W + 692
18 - 29 years BMR = 14.8 x W + 487
30 - 59 years BMR = 8.3 x W + 846
Calculating Basal Metabolic Rate
What's your BMR?
How does it compare to what you consumed yesterday?
Factors Affecting BMR
Age
Reduces with age
Falls around 2% per decade after 30 years old
Gender
Males generally have greater muscle mass than woman
Therefore generally have a higher BMR
Taller, heavier people have a higher BMR
Really!?....
Climate
BMR increases when the body is subjected to hot or cold climates
The body tries to maintain the body’s internal temperature
Physical Activity
To estimate your total energy requirements you also need to consider your level of physical activity and training
To estimate your total energy requirement multiply your BMR by your physical activity level (PAL)
This is linked with both your occupational and non-occupational activity levels.

“Energy balance” is the relationship between “energy intake” (food calories taken into the body through food and drink) and “energy Expenditure” (calories being used in the body for our daily energy requirements).

Energy Balance: Energy Intake = Energy Expenditure.

Energy Intake = food, drink and supplements.

Energy Expenditure = Exercise, Metabolic Rate, Warmth,



Recap
1 cal = _____joules
What fuel is used during a 60m sprint?
What fuel is used during a marathon?
three somatotypes?
three body fat measurement techniques?
Negative and positive energy balance?
4 factors that affect BMR?
Now lets start assignment three!!!
"Good Work"
Task 1
Task 2
3
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