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Geography fieldwork Geog 2
Transcript of Geography fieldwork Geog 2
Describe the location of your fieldwork
Describe the geographical theory or concept that formed the basis of your investigation.
Assess the effectiveness of strategies used to minimise risks
Outline the risks associated with carrying out your fieldwork.
With reference to your fieldwork investigation, distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data
Describe ONE method that you used for the collection of primary or secondary data
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this method
Describe one application of ICT in carrying out your fieldwork.
Comment on its usefulness
Describe a method of data analysis that was used in your investigation.
state its advantages
Describe one method used to present data
Sketch a diagram of this method?
Why did you choose this method?
Comment of the strengths and weaknesses of different aspects of your study
How far did your fieldwork conclusions match the geographical theory on which your investigation was based?
Two minutes to answer each question
River Eea in South Cumbria
Runs through cartmel valley into morecombe bay
10 km long
flows through a number of small villages including Cartmel
Studied four sites at regular intervals along river
Starting at ayside tarn near the source and finishing near morecombe bay
Investigation was to determine if the River Eea fits the bradshaw model
River is short so it is easy to study the entire river system
River is easily accessed at regular intervals
River was close to fieldwork centre so it could be studied in a day
River has a relatively small discharge so easy to investigate various aspects of the bradshaw model
Site had been risk assessed and was considered safe for investigation
Investigate changing characteristics of the river Eea
The theory that formed basis of investigation was Bradshaw model
suggests, in most rivers, similar changes occur downstream from source to mouth
We looked at six aspects of the bradshaw model
Eg Velocity - river velocity decreases downstream (despite gradient decreasing) because the frictional drag of the bed and banks decreases as the channel efficiency increases
eg channel width - channel width increases from source to mouth due to increased discharge and input from tributaries.
hazards - water; drowning hazard; hypothermia; slipping on wet rocks; climbing hills with muddy slopes
Minimising risk - don't go into water deeper than knee level
do not enter water if water is flowing too quickly
Do not step on moss covered rocks
wear appropriate footwear and clothing
No accidents occured. However, if they had accident would have been minor as no work was carried during dangerous conditions
Qualitative data involves the collection of opinions,
perspectives, thoughts and feelings.
More subjective in nature.
Quantitative data is numerical in form. More objective in nature.
The most important thing is to provide examples!
Width of the river; depth; velocity; gradient
Could you argue that any data you collected was qualitative?
Write it like you're writing for the dumbest person in the world
In order to measure the cross-sectional area of the River Eea
we stood on opposite sides of the channel and used a tape measure to measure the width from where the dry bank met the water to the corresponding point on the other side.
In order to avoid drag, the tape was pulled tight at 90º to the flow of the river, and held 20cm above the water line.
Then, at regular intervals of 20cm we used a metre ruler to measure the depth. This was done by placing the ruler into the water until it met the river bed. Intervals of 50cm were used when the river became wider. The method was repeated at regular intervals downstream’
Evaluate the method
Include at least two strengths and two weaknesses
Take many measurements during the day
Weaknesses - suggest improvements
Difficult to keep tape tight - Support tape in middle
Ensuring 90 degrees to the bank - laser
Water banking up the ruler giving the wrong reading - Use sonar
Internet - look at maps of a variety of scales to assess the area prior to fieldwork; you could put the area into context.
Geographical information systems
Name the website
What were you searching for?
Was it useful
Did you print the information?
Used to determine the strength of the relationship between two sets of data
You must provide a context
Allowed us to see the strength of the relationship between cross sectional and distance downstream from the source of the river
Provides us with objective opinion
Allows us to determine the significance of the relationship between cross sectional area and distance downstream from source
Cross sectional area
Used graph paper
x-axis labelled width
y-axis labelled depth
Appropriate scale chosen so the graph is proportional to the actual river
0 was at the top of the y-axis in order to accurately show depth
Points were plotted on the graph at the same interval they were taken in the field
Smooth line used to join up the dots
Evaluate - It's a bitch but this question is always worth many marks
For full marks you have to evaluate more than one area
I have reasonable confidence in my results as the methods I used were successful in providing data that could be analysed easily
However - There are many areas for improvement
For example, I was trying to see if cross sectional area increased downstream
I only visited four sites and it is dificult to draw valid conclusions from limited evidence
I only measure CSA once; I should have measured it three times to get clearer evidence
Cross section area line graph
simple and accurate way of transforming data
However, sometimes water was too shallow so the channel was barely visible on the graph
I had to double the scale for the x-axis
This is a limitation as proportionality is lost
The key is the linkage
Aim was to see if River Eea follows bradshaw model
This says cross sectional area increases as you go down stream
Be explicit - our results show that cross sectional area increased as we went downstream. The cross sectional area at site 1 (near the mouth) was 5 cubic metres; at sites 2, 3 and 4 it was 10, 25 and 30 cubic metres respectively.
Identify any anomalies - were the anomalies unique to your group or did other groups find the same? - suggest further research!
Use two examples - one that did follow expected outcomes - and one that had anomalies - if you can't remember your date, make it up (within reason!)