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Systems of Schooling in Australia

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Rachel Clough

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Systems of Schooling in Australia

Systems of Schooling in Australia
Overview
Historical origins of school systems
School Market
School choice
How it affects teachers (Us!)

The School Market
Activity - Role play
In Groups of 3 or 4, you will be embodying a certain type of school system.
One group will represent a family who is picking a school for their teenage children.
Colonisation - Early 19th C
British Approaches:
Education is a "private affair" for the wealthy
The Anglican church had the responsibility to educate the "other" children
First Gov. Schools
Orphans (1795)
"Devoted to social control and reformation of the most unruly groups"
- Campbell (2010)
Divisions and Change
Different religious denominations
Socially/Economically divisive
Separation of Religion and Education?
National Schools
Public Instruction Acts and Education Acts
Cut off all state aid to non- government schools
Schooling became:
"Greater economic prosperity and industrial advance" - Campbell, 2010
Girls (1801)
Aboriginal 'natives' (1815)
Generally "Christian-oriented" Curriculum
Predecessor to modern Government schools
Basic education
Coexisted with denominational schools and private schools
All schooling in the 1860's was not:
compulsory
free
secular
Free - Compulsory - Secular
1852 to 1906
References
Anderson, D. (1992) The Interaction of Public and Private School Systems" in Australian Journal of Education, (pp. 213-234) Australian Council for Education Research

Ashbolt, A. (2010, January 18). Time for a real education revolution. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from The Drum: http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/28046.html

Ball, S. (2003) Class Strategies and the Education Market: The Middle Class and Social Advantage. London, New York: RoutledgeFalmer

Campbell, C., (2010) "Schools and school Choice" in R.Connell et al., Education Change and Society, (pp. 272-307) Melbourne: Oxford University Press

Jensen, B., Weidmann, B. and Farmer, J. (2013). The Myth of Markets in School Education. Grattan Institute. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://grattan.edu.au/static/files/assets/de60db0d/myth_of_markets_in_school_education.pdf

King, I. (2013, May 23). How to negotiate the best pathway. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://ezproxy.library.usyd.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1353539987?accountid=14757

Patty, A. (2008, March 10). White flight from schools: RACIAL DIVIDE HITS CHILDREN - A HERALD INVESTIGATION. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/docview/364279318

RSA, (October, 2010) Accessed: 23 September 2013 from: http://www.thersa.org/events/rsaanimate/animate/rsa-animate-changing-paradigms,

Sahlberg, P. (2010) Rethinking accountability in a knowledge society in Journal of Educational Change vol 11. Italy: Springer. pp.45-61.

Vickers, M. (2005) In The Common Good: The Need For a New Approach to Funding Australia's Schools. in Australian Journal of Education vol 49, no 3 (pp. 264-277) Sydney.

Early 20th C
State government involved in Secondary Education
WW2 - Government school system is powerful
http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/fuN7lsOjrSKSbS9
Summary
Late 20th C
Re-introduction of
state aid
to non-gov Schools
Financial pressures to provide for the
'Baby Boom'
1972 Whitlam Gov provides funding based on
'need'
Pressures of
Multiculturalism
Neo-liberal
approaches
1:54 - 3:23
Where are we now?
Social Perspectives
Australian Bureau of Statistics - March 2013
http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features202012?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2012&num=&view=
Emerging Perspectives
Why do I need to know this, and how does it affect me?
Student
Teacher
School Systems
School Market
How will you market your school?
So Let's Go Shopping
'Choice' Inequity



Consumerism ???


Parents are increasingly being forced into the role of consumers of private services as the growth of diverse schools has created an educational market.

(Connell et al, 2010, p. 287)
The Media Says What?
'1. Find a school that's a good fit with your
values
2.. Assess whether the school suits the
personality
of your child
3. Choose a school within your
financial means

If the family is under great financial stress to pay for education, you might be better off considering a public school then augmenting the experience with other interactions and influences.'
King, I. (2013, May 23). How to negotiate the best pathway. Sydney Morning Herald
It's Your Choice
'Not only have some public schools lost enrolments; they have become
racially segregated
. In pockets of rural and remote NSW, Aboriginal students fill public schools and white students attend Catholic and other private schools in the same town.

Policies of the Howard government and the Liberal state government that had strongly supported
parental choice
in schooling, including
de-zoning
, had contributed to "
white flight
".'
Patty, A. (2008, March 10). White flight from schools: RACIAL DIVIDE HITS CHILDREN - A HERALD INVESTIGATION. Sydney Morning Herald.
But White Flight?
Genuine Choice
'Middle class flight becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy and the public schools are ultimately
residual education
providers for the poorer sections of the working class and the more disadvantaged generally.
Genuine choice
means transforming all public schools into schools of excellence, which will require substantial
expenditure
on infrastructure and teachers. It also means returning private schools to their private status whereby they are dependent solely on private funding.'
Ashbolt, A. (2010, January 18). Time for a real education revolution. The Drum.
Generally supportive of private schooling ...
... But are they changing their tune?
... Or are they just voicing 'our' disillusionment?
And Academics Say
'Providing
more information
about schools,
cutting private school fees
or
increasing the capacity
of high-performing government schools
will do little
to increase school competition and lift student performance.'
Jensen, B., Weidmann, B. and Farmer, J. (2013). The Myth of Markets in School Education. Grattan Institute.
There is a general consensus that a market-based approach to education will have negative implications for the rest of society.
The
right to choose
has meant that secondary schooling in Australia has become increasingly segregated and unequal.

Increased schools in areas has led to the
duplication of provisions
, reductions in economies of scale and an
increase in per-student costs
.
Vickers, M. (2005) In The Common Good: The Need For a New Approach to Funding Australia's Schools.
How Is A Market Created?
Economic

Ideological

Political

Restructuring

Cultural/discursive change

Policy change/public sector reform

New labour markets

Individualism

Choice and competition

Ball, S. (2003) Class Strategies and the Education Market. p.19
What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating a school market?
In Groups Discuss:
The Right to Choose
Increasing public-sector
productivity
is changing small, personalised schools into larger institutions characterised by opportunity and choice.

Market-like efficiency measures have brought
standards, testing and the race for higher achievement
as measured by these tests to the centre of lives of teachers and students—both in and out of their schools. All these are a threat to
social capital
in schools and in their communities.
Around the World
Sahlberg, P. (2010) Rethinking accountability in a knowledge society. Italy. p.47
Or Not
residualised education
'white flight' segregation
duplication of resources
increase in per-student costs
institutions based on opportunity
poor quality of education
inequality
increased learning gap
Going Nowhere
Full transcript