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Copy of AP Bio- Ecology 1: Behavior

1 of 6 of my Ecology Unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The InternetProvided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke

Kim Van Den Ouweland

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Ecology 1: Behavior

Gedrag Organisme Populatie Gemeenschap Ecosysteem Bioom Biosfeer Wat? Ecologie is de studie van interacties tussen organismen en met hun omgeving.

Ecologische processen komen op verschillende niveaus voor. Alles wat een organisme doet en hoe ze dat doet. Vraag: Make Sure You Can 2 vormen van gedrag Aangeboren Aangeleerd Behavior Evolves Gedrag veronderstelt communicatie Vooral tussen dieren (vertonen het interessantste gedrag).

Communicatie kent verschillende vormen. Er is altijd een signaal nodig dat uitgezonden en ontvangen wordt. Chemische signalen Symbolische signalen Aangeboren gedag is volledig genetisch bepaald. Leren veronderstelt ervaring. Simpel aangeboren gedrag Complex aangeboren gedrag Inprenten Types van leren Ruimte Inzicht Associative Social Verklaring Hoe wordt het gedrag getoond?

Waarom treedt het gedrag op? Hoe is dit gebeurd? Waarom is dit gebeurd? Ethologie: De studie van gedrag Stoffen in de omgeving, of feromonen geproduceerd door andere organismen kunnen dienen als chemisch signalen Meerdere dierensoorten vertonen symbolische manieren van communicatie, informatie wordt gecodeerd in abstracte symbolen (kreten, gebaren). Bv: Minnows in een aquarium reageren op een alarmstof (een chemische stof op de huid van een roofvis). Bv: Bij de bijen communiceren de werksters de plaats van het voedsel aan de anderen door een "kwispeldans". Kwispeldans Chemische signalen kunnen leiden tot heel complex gedrag (bv: mierenkolonies). Actiepatronen: Stereotypisch gedrag dat veroorzaakt wordt door een "symbool". Bv: Agressief gedrag bij een mannelijke stekelbaars (a.) treedt op bij elk voorwerp met een rode onderkant (b.) dat getoond wordt. Bv: Baltsgedrag bij Drosophila. Seksueel gedrag Inprenting is aangeboren en gebonden aan een prille levensfase. Bv: Inprenten bij jonge ganzen en andere vogels. Lorenz en zijn ganzen Refers to the most complex types of learned behavior, that rely upon multiple mental processes (awareness, recall, reasoning, evaluation) to accomplish. Ex: An experiment that demonstrates support for the hypothesis that honeybees can remember and distinguish "same" from "different" The establishment of memories that reflect the physical structure of the environment. Ex: Association of physical markers (pine cone ring) with nest location in Digger wasps. The spatial education of mouse 109 Learning through observation and interaction with other individuals. Ex: A young chimpanzee learns to crack nuts by observing an elder. Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? Australian children seem really mean Connecting one environmental feature with another. Ex: A bluejay learns to associate eating a monarch butterfly with subsequent vomiting. B.F. Skinner: "Operante conditionering" Het is zinloos om te veronder-stellen dat deze twee zaken volledig gescheiden zijn. 1. Behavior and Genetics 2. Behavior and the Environment 3. Behavior and Fitness 4. Altruism What is the relationship between an organism's genetics and its behaviors? There is always a relationship. Even if it is just for the ability to learn. Example 1: Insect Calls Example 2: Migration There are many species of Green Lacewing which are morphologically identical.

They can be hybridized in the lab. Hybrid lacewings have songs that have combined characteristics of both parental species. Young Blackcap birds were captured in Britain and raised in Germany. The birds from Britain demonstrated a migratory preference different from native, German, Blackcaps What is the relationship between an organism's genetics and its environment? Environmental constraints determine fitness, which includes behavior. Example 1: Foraging Foraging: Food-obtaining behavior.

Natural selection should favor minimized energetic cost, and maximized food acquisition ("optimal foraging theory") Crows demonstrate a food drop preference that is energetically optimized. Drosophila raised in different population densities evolve different foraging path lengths. Example 2: Parental Influence Learned behaviors have to be taught. Mice cross-fostered by other species show differences in aggression responses. Behavior should increase reproductive success Mating Systems Parental Care Sexual Selection Game Theory Applications The mating system has an effect on sexual dimorphism in a species Parental care is influenced by the certainty of paternity Mate preference of females can drive the evolution of male behavior. Male competition for mates can have similar effects ("agonistic behavior") Female zebra finches raised by ornamented males prefer ornamented mates. "Mate-choice copying":
Female guppies prefer more orange males...unless a less orange male is in courtship with a female. In which case, female guppies prefer that male. Agonism in Elephant Seals I wish males fought like this in DPHS! ...they kind of do... Game theory is a field of "Behavioral economics", which evaluates the advantages of different strategies. Example: Side-blotched lizards. Three male forms:
orange-throat: most aggressive, largest territory.
blue-throat: less aggressive, smaller territory.
yellow-throat: non-territorial, sneaky maters.

Orange outcompetes blue. Blue outcompetes yellow. Yellow outcompetes Orange.

"Rock, Paper, Scissors." Refers to any behavior that an organism engages in which increases the fitness of other organisms while decreasing its own fitness. Example: vervet monkeys sound alert calls in response to predators. How can this be explained? Relatedness. Altruism evolves in populations of closely related individuals.

Inclusive fitness: anything that increases proliferation of an organism's genes (not necessarily by the organism). "I would lay down my life for 2 siblings or eight cousins"
-JBS Haldane Female ground squirrels live closer to their birthplace, where relatives engage in altruistic warning behaviors. When attacked, members of Naked Mole Rat colonies will sacrifice themselves to preserve the life of the breeding "Queen". All colony members are siblings/cousins. Waarom gedragen organismen zich op een bepaalde manier? Provide proximate and ultimate explanations for the behaviors discussed in this presentation.

Compare innate and learned behaviors and provide examples of each.

Describe how a particular behavior can evolve.

Explain how particular behaviors contribute to an organism's fitness.

Explain how altruistic behaviors can evolve in a population. Communicatie met feromonen bij mieren Agressie bij de Betta-vis Male stalk-eyed flies
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