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Amendments 19 and 26 of the United States Constitution.

Amendment 19 establishes women's suffrage. Amendment 26 establishes the right to vote for those age 18 years or older.
by

Aseel Hawamdeh

on 3 November 2012

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Transcript of Amendments 19 and 26 of the United States Constitution.

The 19th amendment protects the concept of Women's suffrage, and enables congress to enforce this through appropriate legislation if proven necessary.
The 26th amendment protects the right to vote for those age 18 years or older, and enables congress to enforce this through appropriate legislation if proven necessary. The 19th Amendment: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
(Ratified August 18, 1920) The 26th Amendment: The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. Congress shall have the power to enforce this law through appropriate legislation.
(Ratified July 1, 1971) How does the amendment protect citizen rights? Who supported it? Why did they support it? Many activists and activist groups supported Women's suffrage, and often went to great lengths to achieve this form of equality for Women. One of the groups that were formed as a symbol to this movement was the National Woman's Party (NWP). They wanted equal rights for all, and recognized the significance of suffrage as one of the basic rights for Women as much as it was for Men; it was the first step in the road called "Feminism". There were many organizations which supported the 26th amendment. The following are a couple of examples: The National Education Association (NEA) Student Program and the NEA Representative Assembly's thousands of nationwide allies. With student demonstrations leading the way, the slogan "Old enough to fight, old enough to vote" gained much popularity in the midst of the Vietnam War and the concept behind it was one of this amendment's major support systems. Who did not support it? Why were they against it? Women's suffrage was not supported by everyone. Much of the South was against the idea and concept of such an amendment, and hence did not want it ratified. The Southern states were firm and steadfast in their beliefs and mostly did not want change. They weren't very liberal or open-minded about the idea. The most difficult state to gain approval from for the ratification of the 19th amendment was Tennessee (with 50 of 99 members of the Tennessee House of Representatives voting yes), but they were the last, and after several attempts to finalize this U.S amendment, the time came in 1919 when it had shown success with 36 of the necessary 36 state legislatures. The 26th amendment was challenged in court by Justice Hugo Black, who wrote the majority decision in the case. This majority decision held that Congress did not have the right to regulate the minimum age in State and local elections, but only in federal elections. The issue left the Court seriously divided. Four justices believed Congress did have the right in state and local elections, while four others believed that Congress lacked the right even for federal elections, and that under the Constitution only the states have the right to set voter qualifications. When was it introduced?
When was it ratified? In 1878, a constitutional amendment was proposed that provided "The right of citizens to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." In July of 1890, the Territory of Wyoming was admitted as a state, and became the first state which allowed Women's suffrage. By 1900, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho joined Wyoming in allowing women to vote. Several other states joined in on the ratification of this amendment by 1920. Jennings Randolph, often called the "The Father of the 26th Amendment" introduced legislation eleven times -- in the U.S. House of Representatives and later in the United States Senate -- to lower the voting age, beginning in 1942 until its passage and ratification in 1971. It is because of perseverance and strong faith in the youth that 18-20-year-olds have the opportunity to vote in presidential elections What history and events led to its ratification? The beginning of the fight for women suffrage is usually traced to the "Declaration of Sentiments" which was created at the first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, N. Y. in 1848. Four years later, at the Woman's Rights Convention in Syracuse in 1852, Susan B. Anthony joined these Women in the fight, arguing that "the right women needed above every other...was the right of suffrage." The first case to make its way to the Supreme Court, however, was Minor vs Happersett (1875). In Minor, a unanimous Court rejected the argument that either the privileges and immunities clause or the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment extended the vote to women. In 1878, a constitutional amendment was proposed that provided "The right of citizens to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive (Bull Moose) Party became the first national political party to have a plank supporting women suffrage. The tide was beginning to turn. In May, 1919, the necessary two-thirds vote in favor of the women suffrage amendment was finally mustered in Congress, and the proposed amendment was sent to the states for ratification.
The 26th Amendment was introduced by a group of young activists from the National Education Association and their allies, to harness the energy of student activism in the 1960's and make the dream a reality. It all began with student demonstrations and the slogan, "Old enough to fight, old enough to vote". The Senate voted 94-0 to pass the resolution, and 13 days later, on March 23, 1971, the House voted in favor. Within four months, the amendment was ratified by the required three-fourths of state legislatures. It was the fastest time any proposed amendment has been pressed forward, and President Nixon signed it into law in July. http://voices.yahoo.com/what-19th-amendment-2115656.html?cat=37

http://democracyday.com/the-26th-amendment.html

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm

http://www.agribusinesscouncil.org/JR-amendment.htm

http://www.history.com/topics/the-26th-amendment
Full transcript