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ECGC Final

introduction
by

Stephanie Capps

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of ECGC Final

Jessica Botkin
Stephanie Capps
Megan Carroll
Sarah Davidson
Leslie Langrehr

Team Members
Perfect Fifth
Good Afternoon!
Ethnic Cultural Group Collaboration
Music From Around the World
Asian/Asian American Heritage
African/African American Heritage
European/European American Heritage
Latino/Latin American Heritage
Native American Heritage
Individually reflect on the following questions
What is the value of music?
What do you use music for?
What does music mean to you?
Self-Reflection Activity
Now, with a partner discuss your answers
Were there any differences?
Were there any similarities?
Please be prepared to share with the class
It's time to get out of those seats!
Part of a larger setting
Derived from the time of creation and the source of human life
Dream-visions
To the Navajo, you should not sing an individual curing chant more than three times a year.
Often looked upon as a gift
May also become an obligation
A call of the spirits to become a curer is an example
music and the supernatural
Stress placed upon correct execution of music
mistakes can invalidate
Is not a unified body of material with a single style
Rarely performed for its own sake
a complex of variation
many styles
many concatenations of musical instruments
Although there is great diversity, is can be asserted that music is a vital part of Native American life.
"What one society identifies as art is sometimes regarded as tedious idiocy by another society. Music to one group's ears, becomes noise to another's."

-Marcia Herndon

Before Europeans came to America, Native Americans did not think of themselves as a single cultural entity
Native Americans now are much closer to achieving a common ethnic identity than at the point of White contact or at any time before the present.
Native Alaskan Song Duels
valued for efficacy
Music
involves participation
In Native American culture, no artwork is complete without the active and commitment demands that the audience participate, whether actively or passively, rather than judge.
Native Alaskans use musical duels as a way to settle disputes and as a form of entertainment
African American Music Post Emancipation
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
The Baroque Age
The Classical Age
The Romatic Era
The Twentieth Century
Contemporary
African American Music in New England Colonies
African American Music in Africa
African American Heritage
Influenced by events and circumstances
Native American culture today is constantly changing and is just as innovative as any other thriving culture in this diverse country
Holiday Celebrations and Music
How Slaves Developed Musical Skills
A Musical Culture
Getting Ready in the Morning
In the Car & At the Club
At Church
Generation Gap
Hispanic music is NOT the same as Latino music
Music Influences the Daily Life of Hispanic Americans
Interview: Adrieanna Lopez
Activities & Mood
Tejano/Latino Rock
Reggaeton
Mariachi
Contemporary fusion
Traditional genres
(Also known as the Dark Ages)
When Christian Church emerged it generally dictated the destiny of music, art, and literature.
Pope Gregory - Gregorian Chant was one of the only approved forms of music of the Church.
1420-1600
Sacred music began to break free of the Church because of the rise of humanism
Instrumental and dance music was performed in great quantities
The kind of music was the English madrigal
1600-1750
Composers role in music was much a servant to the Monarchs, as they composed music solely for that individual and was pre-determined
Bach was one of these "servants"
Opera was first introduced by a group of Italian composers
Harpisord music became popular
1750-1820
During this time period impersonal , but tuneful music was in demand by Aristrocrats
Vienna became music center of Europe
Symphonies , synatas, and stringed quartets were composed in abundance
Wolfgang, Mozart, and Beethoven
1820-1900
Added a new emotional depth to the music, artists were intent on expressing their own emotions
Wrote music about hereoes, chivarlry, and unattainable love in the form of long poems
Sympony orchestra expanded due to improvement of existing instruments and the creation of new ones
Artists were searching for new ways and modes of expressing themselves
The most popular genres are rock, hip/hop, rap, and country
Most African Americans were brought over from West Africa from the areas that are now Senegal, Guinea, Gambria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, and parts of the Congo republics
In 1789 Olaudah Equiano was one of the first Africans to write a book in English describing the area from which slaves were taken
"We are almost a nation of dancers, musicians, and poets. Thus every great event is celebrated in public dances which are accompanied with songs and music suited to the occasion."
Ceremonial music composed the largest part of the musical repertory of a village or a people. Music accompanied religious ceremonies and rites associated with birth, initiation, marriage, healing, going to war, and death
"We have many musical instruments particularly drums of different kinds, an instrument that resemble a guitar and another that is much like a "Stickado".
The major instrument of Black Africa was the drum. A multitude of drums in various sizes were seen and heard
The winds roared, and the rains fell;
The poor white man, faint and weary,
Came and sat under our tree
He has no mother to bring him milk,
No wife to grind his corn.

Chorus:
Let us pity the white man.
No mother has he to bring him milk,
No wife to grind his corn.
"Give flesh to the hyenas at daybreak,
Oh, the broad spears!
The spear of the Sultan is the broadest,
Oh, the broad spears!
I behold thee now-I desire to see none other,
Oh, the broad spears!
My horse is as tall as a high wall,
Oh, the broad spears!
He will fight against ten-he fears nothing,
Oh, the broad spears!
He has slain ten; the guns are yet behind,
Oh, the broad spears!
The elephant of the forest brings me what I want,
Oh, the broad spears!
Like unto thee, so is the Sultan,
Oh, the broad spears!
TO BE SOLD-A Negro Indian Man slave, about 40 years of age, well knkown in town, being a fiddler [June 21, 1748]
Run Away: Negro man named Zack. . . .Speaks good English, plays on the fife and German Flute, had a fife with him [Poughkeepie Journal, 1791]
Run Away: a mulatto fellow named John Jones, about 26 old. . .is a mighty Singer [Maryland Gazette, April 14, 1745]
In New England, most colonies celebrated the same holidays. These included New Year's Day, Easter, Pentecoast, Electrion Day, Militia or Muster Day, Guy Fawkes Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas
Sources say that African Americans usually joined crowds on holidays playing their fiddles, drums, and trumpets
Those fortunate to live on plantations and in the homes of wealthy men were usually exposed to high levels of culture
Most wealthy men owned musical instruments including a Harpsicord, forte Piano, Harmonica, Guitar, Violin, and German Flutes. Members of the family would perform music together in the evening. Slaves were able to move freely about the house and listen to the music when they had the opportunity.
Serious errors may be followed by serious disease
Goal: obtain justice and gain prestige
The loser suffers a reduction in social rank
Getting angry means automatic defeat
The role of the audience members is to evaluate and respond to the performance
Expectations after the event
Philippines
Indonesia
Oral histories and mythologies are often sung in litany style with the use of sliding pitches
Philippine history is mostly Spanish and Moslem. The music of Phillipines shows this background.
Spanish
Moslem
The Northern and Central Philippine islands
The famous tingkling dance where dancers maneuver between clashing poles shows a mixture of the Phillippines culture. The arm movements are Spanish.
Lots of different instruments from Spanish background: Kitara, Madolines, guitars, bass violin, and accordion
The dominant style of music is based on the music of the nineteenth-century Spain
The South Philippines
Most music is from Indonesian influence
Kulintang Orchestras: Knobbed pot gongs that are played on racks and played in ensemble along with drums.
Instruments: Luntang (Vertical xylophone), gitgit (a small bowed lute with three strings that is often played by young men as they go courting), kudyapi (a two-stringed plucked lute with five high frets).
The center of art music tradition is the Javanese gamelan (orchestra)
Basic Functions:
1. basic melody played in relatively slow, unadorned fashion.
2. Many layers of elaboration constructed around the nuclear theme.
3. A set of interpunctuating gongs used to divide the melody into various temporal sections.
Most famous orchestra in Indonesia is Balinese gamelan
Two basic kinds of gamelan in Java:
Loud style with emphasis on bronze instruments
Soft style which flute, rebab, and chelempung
Bulk of music about:
Tales of hero Pandji and local versions of the Hindu Ramayana and Mahabharata
Interlocking parts very important to Balinese music
Most are clubs organized in a village
New styles of playing are constantly being created
Mixture of traditional and new forms
Under Construction!!!
Composers explored unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes surrounded by WWI
The invention of the radio changed the face of music
Because of technological advances, it became easier for artists to gain world fame
Audiences became more easily exposed to a wider range of music
All of the many genres play a role in audiences everyday lives

The accomplishments in African American music were designed to point out, defend and promote the talents and the worth of African Americans and their culture.
Blues and Ballands were two popular song forms performed by African Americans
The lyrics of Ballads were different from blues. Blues discussed the harshness of life and ballads were usually happier lookout on life
Ballad:
Carry me back to ole Virginny.
There's where the cotton and 'tatoes grow. . .
There's where the ole darkey's
Heart am long'd to go.

Blues:
I've got those Vicksburg blues
And I'm signin' it everywhere I please
Now, the reason I'm singing' it
Is to give my poor heart ease.
Ragtime was a very popular form of music usually played on the piano.
Scott Joplin
"King of Ragtime"
The Jazz Influence
Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington were musicians that contributed to what is called the "Black Renaissance."
Duke Ellington was an American composer, pianist, and big band leader. Some say Ellington took jazz to an artistic level, being similar to the high art of classical music
Jazz by definition is described as improvision, blues, ragtime, soul or rhythm
Jazz was a collective term that also included aspects of African American Primitivism
Louis Armstrong was a cornet and trumpet player, Armstrong had a huge influence on jazz music.
Southeast Asia
Burma, mainland Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
Over centuries, the names and cultural conditions of these areas have changed several times
Music reflects four main external regions or traditions: Indonesia, China, India, and recently the West
All rely on oral learning
Most music is inspired by a form of theatre
Theatrical, Popular, and Foreign Music
Folk and Tribal Music
Sacred and Secular Vocal Music

String Instrumental Solo and Chamber Music
Wind Ensembles and Instruments
Emphasize bowed and plucked chordophones
Main function are to accompany songs and plays
Main patronage in capitals
Individual bowed instruments are widespread rurally
Percussion Dominated Ensembles
Active interest in American jazz
Tradition goes back to dance dramas played in stone reliefs
Most theatrical performances have been influenced by foreign productions
Dream songs: found in urban, rural, and back country areas all through Southeast Asia
Tribal music: the lack of boundaries between the countries makes it hard to make out different kinds of tribal music. This reflects our lack of knowledge not the lack of variety.
Pwo Karem people of North Thailand: funeral songs very important. They offer the best opportunity for young ment and women to meet and flirt.
Many forms of drums throughout Southeast Asia
Voice quality for lullabies, love songs, and work songs varies from high-pitched and nasaly to soft and low crooning
Japan
China
A country of many islands
Folk Songs
Art Music
Military Music
Sung in a high, tight-throated, melismatic fashion
Festival music has a lot of ritual dances
Festival dances are related to the ancient theatricals of court or to surviving professional traditions
Folk traditions kept alive by local chambers of commerce, Shinto shrinces, and Buddhist temples
2 different forms
Buddhist chant (shomyo)
Court orchestra music (gagaku)
Both originally inspiried by China
Both make use of a common Japanese principle of elastic or breath rhythm
Used in warfare, drills, and parades
Instruments: drums, small horns, flutes, and weapons
Formative (3rd millennium B.C. - 4th Century)
International (5th Century - 9th Century)
National (10th Century - 19th Century)
Period of World Music (20th Century)
Confucius considered performances of music to be an ethical as well as a pleasurable experience
North was heavily influenced by surrounding countries
South was influenced by old court and popular traditions
Separated into three periods:

Sung Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Ch'ing Period
Music merges with western music
Most successful type of music is instrumental
Past music is mostly not performed
Burmese percussion orchestra
Deep roots
More itinerant and travels from village to village
Sometimes called saing or saing waing
Instruments: set of 21 tuned drums, knobbed gongs, large barrel drum, cymbals, bamboo slappers, double-reed aerophone, and a bell
Contain keyed instruments and gongs of fixed pitches
To the American ear it sounds similar to the blues
Tone System
String Dominated Ensembles
All groups are heard in royal palaces accompanying official ceremonies and classical dramatic performances
Music is derived primarily from days of courtly power
Has little support among the population
Best known: Thai pi phat band
Ensembles vary from 6-14 players
Can play chords and melody at the same time
Consists of 6-16 long bamboo pipes joined at the bottom by a single wind chamber
A variety of flutes, both horizontal and end-blown exist in Southeast Asia
Most famous: khaen
Many instruments of classical Southeast Asia have solo literature
The momochord of Vietnam, along with a lot of other strings of Southeast Asia are used in social music of villages
Joined in recent decades by the guitar from the West
Most of Vietnam's music reflects a strong Chinese influence
Thai sai pha: vocal performer accompanies himself with four stiks clicked together
Unison choral singing heard in mahori pieces
Massed singing heard most often in religious chanting or courts, temples, and theatrical music
Chinese influence strong in Buddist music
Dream songs of the village clairvoyants
Personal problems presented to seers, who go into a trance, then through song give advice of the supernatural
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