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End of Year Latin Project

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Victoria Crans

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Transcript of End of Year Latin Project

End of Year Project
Tori Crans
Latin III
mods. 13-14 Irregular Principle Parts Vocabulary Grammar Irregular Verbs Nolo Volo Fio Deponent Verbs abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - put away, hide addo, -ere, adii, additus - add affero, afferre, attuli, allatus - bring (to), assign, report carpo, -ere, carpsi, carptus - pick; take; consume defero, deferre, detuli, delatus - carry, bestow, offer, enroll, report A-D effero, efferre, extuli, elatus - carry out, make known erigo, -ere, erexi, erectus - raise up fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsus - deceive haurio, -ire, hausi, haustus - drain, drink iacio, -ere, ieci, iactus - throw, hurl, cast E-I maneo, manere, mansi, mansurus - remain M-P malo, malle, malui, -- to prefer nolo, nolle, nolui, -- to not want, not wish, be unwilling obsto, obstare, obstiti, obstaturus - prevent perfero, perferre, pertuli, perlatus - carry (through), report, endure R-T refero, referre, rettuli, relatus - bring or carry back reicio, -ere, reieci, reiectus - drive back, reject spondeo, spondere, spopondi, sponsus - promise, pledge, engage supersum, -esse, -fui, -futurus - be left (over), survive tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatus - raise, carry, remove, destroy Eo Malo Fero to not want Indicative Present: nolo nolumus
non vis non vultis
non vult nolunt Imperfect: nolebam nolebamus
nolebas nolebatis
nolebat nolebant Future: nolam nolemus
noles noletis
nolet nolent Perfect: nolui noluimus
noluisti noluistis
noluit noluerunt Pluperfect: nolueram nolueramus
noleras noleratis
nolerat nolerant Fut. Perfect: noluero noluerimus
nolueris nolueritis
noluerit noluerint Subjunctive Present: nolim nolimus
nolis nolitis
nolit nolint Imperfect: nollem nollemus
nolles nolletis
nollet nollent Perfect: noluerim noluerimus
nolueris nolueritis
noluerit noluerint Pluperfect: noluissem noluissemus
noluisses noluissetis
noluisset noluissent Imperative Infinitive Participle Singular: noli
Plural: nolite Present: nolle
Perfect: noluisse Present: nolens Explanation: Deponent verbs are active in
meaning but passive in form. Example:
arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus - think Indirect Question Explanation: Indirect questions are introduced by verbs of asking, knowing, saying, perceiving, etc. and an interrogative word. The verb of the original direct question is in the subjuncitve and follows the rule for sequence of tenses. Example:
Latin: Miror quid frater meus agat.
English: I wonder what my brother is doing. Indirect Command Explanation: Verbs expressing the subject's will, command, advice, decision, etc. can have as objects clauses introduced by ut or ne with the verb in the subjunctive and following the sequence of tenses. Example:
Latin: Imperavit mihi ut librum legerem.
English: He ordered me to read the book. Supine Gerund Explanation: Gerunds are verbal nouns that are translated as English words with the suffix -ing. It is only declined in neuter singular in Latin and has no nominative. It has four cases, which are formed by adding -ndi, -ndo, -ndum, and -ndo to the present stem in the first three conjugations. An -e- is inserted in the -io verbs. Example:
1st-3rd Conjugations: portandi (carrying),
monendi (showing), ponendi (placing)
-io Verbs: capiendi (taking), muniendi
(fortifying) Gerundive Explanation: Gerundives are verbal adjectives. It looks exactly like the future passive participle of a verb. It exists in every case in both the singular and plural. It always agrees with a noun or pronoun. Passive Periphrastic Ablatives Datives Volitive Subjunctive Explanation: The volitive subjunctive is used to express the speaker's will. The verb in these phrases is in the subjunctive mood. Example:
Latin: Semper memoria teneant.
English: Let them always remember. Subjunctive 1st Conjugation 2nd Conjugation 3rd Conjugation 4th Conjugation
(same endings for 3rd -io) Explanation: Auxiliary verbs such as let, may, might, should, and would are used in English to express ideas not presented as simple facts. In Latin the subjunctive mood is used to express such ideas. It only exists in the present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses. Present: portem portemus
portes portetis
portet portent Imperfect: portarem portaremus
portares portaretis
portaret portarent Perfect: portaverim portaverimus
portaveris portaveritis
portaverit portaverint Pluperfect: portavissem portavissemus
portavisses portavissetis
portavisset portavissent Active Passive porter portemur
porteris portemini
portetur portentur portarer portaremur
portareris portaremini
portaretur portarentur portatus
(-a, -um) { sim
sis
sit portati
(-ae, -a) { simus
sitis
sint portatus
(-a, -um) { essem
esses
esset portati
(-ae, -a) { essemus
essetis
essent Present: doceam doceamus
doceas doceatis
doceat doceant Imperfect: docerem doceremus
doceres doceretis
doceret docerent Perfect: docuerim docuerimus
docueris docueritis
docuerit docuerint Pluperfect: docuissem docuissemus
docuisses docuissetis
docuisset docuissent Active Passive docear doceamur
docearis doceamini
doceatur doceantur docerer doceremur
docereris doceremini
doceretur docerentur doctus sim docti simus
doctus sis docti sitis
doctus sit docti sitis doctus essem docti essemus
doctus esses docti essetis
doctus esset docti essent Present: ponam ponamus
ponas ponatis
ponat ponant Imperfect: ponerem poneremus
poneres poneretis
poneret ponerent Perfect: posuerim posuerimus
posueris posueritis
posuerit posuerint Pluperfect: posuissem posuissemus
posuisses possuissetis
posuisset posuissent Active Passive ponar ponamur
ponaris ponamini
ponatur ponantur ponerer poneremur
ponereris poneremini
poneretur ponerentur positus sim positi simus
positus sis positi sitis
positus sit positi sint positus essem positi essemus
positus esses positi essetis
positus esset positi essent Present: muniam muniamus
munias muniatis
muniat muniant Imperfect: munirem muniremus
munires muniretis
muniret munirent Perfect: muniverim muniverimus
muniveris muniveritis
muniverit muniverint Pluperfect: munivissem munivissemus
munivisses munivissetis
munivisset munivissent Active muniar muniamur
muniaris muniamini
muniatur muniantur Passive munirer muniremur
munireris muniremini
muniretur munirentur munitus sim muniti simus
munitus sis muniti sitis
munitus sit muniti sint munitus essem muniti essemus
munitus esses muniti essetis
munitus esset muniti essent Purpose Clause Ut Clauses Explanation: The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause with ut (negative ne) to express the purpose of the act expressed by the principal clause. Ut is translated as 'in order to' and ne is translated as 'lest.' Example:
Latin: Venimus ut templum videamus.
English: We come in order to see the temple. Quo Clauses Explanation: If the purpose clause contains an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree, quo is usually used instead of ut. Example:
Latin: Accedit quo facilius audiat.
English: He approaches in order that he may hear
more easily. Relative Purpose Clauses Explanation: If the main clause of a sentence contains a definite antecedant, the purpose clause can be introduced by the relative pronoun qui instead of ut. Example:
Latin: Milites misit qui hostem impedirent.
English: He sent soldiers to hinder the enemy. Result Clause Explanation: The result of the action of the main verb in a sentence is expressed by a subordinate clause with ut (negative ut non) along with the subjunctive. Example:
Latin: Ita bene erant castra munita ut non
capi possent.
English: The camp had been fortified so
well that it could not be taken. Sequence of Tenses Explanation: In Latin the verb in the subjunctive shifts its tense in relation to that of the main verb. Primary Tenses:
Indicative: present, future, future perfect
Subjunctive: present or perfect Secondary Tenses:
Indicative: imperfect, perfect, pluperfect
Subjunctive: imperfect or pluperfect Temporal Clause
with Cum Explanation: Cum can be used with the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in the subordinate clause and the indicative in the main clause. In these cases cum means when, not with. Example:
Latin: Cum iuvenes Athenas iter facerent,
multos Romanos viderunt.
English: When the young men were on the
way to Athens, they saw many
Romans. Conditions: Simple Present Simple Past Future More Vivid Present Contrary to Fact Past Contrary to Fact Future Less Vivid Explanation: Conditions are subordinate clauses introduced by si, nisi, or si non. The principal clause is the conclusion. Explanation: In present contrary to fact The imperfect subjunctive is used in the main clause. Example:
Latin: Si me laudaret, laetus essem.
English: If he were praising me (but he isn't), I
should be glad. Explanation: In past contrary to fact the pluperfect subjunctive is used in the main clause. Example:
Latin: Si ne laudavisset, laetus fuissem.
English: I he had praised me (but he didn't), I should
have been glad. Explanation: In future less vivid the present subjunctive is used in the principal clause, and in English the sentence is translated using "should" and "would." Example:
Latin: Si me laudet, laetus sim.
English: If he should praise me, I should be glad. Fearing Clause Explanation: After verbs meaning fear, such as timeo and vereor, the conjunction ne introducing a subjunctive clause is translated as 'that' and ut is translated as 'that not.' The verb in the ut or ne clause is subjunctive. Example:
Latin: Veremur ut veniat.
English: We fear that he will not come. Indefinite Pronouns /
Adjectives Explanation: Aliquis is a compound of quis and often means 'someone.' It is declined like quis, except aliqua is both nominative and accusative neuter plural. Aliquis Singular Nom. aliquis aliquid
Gen. alicuius alicuius
Dat. alicui alicui
Acc. aliquem aliquid
Abl. aliquo aliquo Masculine + Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. aliqui aliquae aliqua
Gen. aliquorum aliquarum aliquorum
Dat. aliquibus aliquibus aliquibus
Acc. aliquos aliquas aliqua
Abl. aliquibus aliquibus aliquibus Plural Explanation: Quidam means 'a certain one' and is less indefinite than aliquis. It is declined almost like the relative pronoun qui, and -dam is indeclinable. Quidam Singular Nom. quidam quaedam quiddam
Gen. cuiusdam cuiusdam cuiusdam
Dat. cuidam cuidam cuidam
Acc. quendam quadam quodam
Abl. quodam quadam quodam Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. quidam quaedam quaedam
Gen. quorundam quarundam quorundam
Dat. quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam
Acc. quosdam quasdam quaedam
Abl. quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam a certain one someone 4th Declension Nouns Singular Plural Nom. casus casūs
Gen. casūs casuum
Dat. casui casibus
Acc. casum casūs
Abl. casū casibus } downfall, accident Singular Plural Nom. cornū cornua
Gen. cornūs cornuum
Dat. cornū cornibus
Acc. cornū cornua
Abl. cornū cornibus } horn 5th Declension Nouns Singular Plural Nom. dies dies
Gen. diei dierum
Dat. diei diebus
Acc. diem dies
Abl. die diebus } day Singular Plural Nom. res res
Gen. rei rerum
Dat. rei rebus
Acc. rem res
Abl. re rebus } thing, matter Infinitives 3rd Declension
I-Stem Nouns Adjective Degrees Indirect Statements Present: volo volumus
vis vultis
vult volunt Indicative Imperfect: volebam volebamus
volebas volebatis
volebat volebant Perfect: volui voluimus
voluisti voluistis
voluit voluerunt Future: volam volemus
voles voletis
volet volent Pluperfect: volueram volueramus
volueras volueratis
voluerat voluerant Fut. Perfect: voluero voluerimus
volueris volueritis
voluerit voluerint Subjunctive Present: velim velimus
velis velitis
velit velint Imperfect: vellem vellemus
velles velletis
vellet vellent Perfect: voluerim voluerimus
volueris volueritis
voluerit voluerint Pluperfect: voluissem voluissemus
voluisses voluissetis
voluisset voluissent Imperative Participle Infinitive Present: volens none Present: velle
Perfect: voluisse to want Indicative Present: fio fimus
fis fitis
fit fiunt Imperfect: fiebam fieabamus
fiebas fiebatis
fiebat fiebant Future: fiam fiamus
fias fiatis
fiat fiant Perfect: factus sum facti sumus
factus es facti estis
factus est facti sunt Pluperfect: factus eram facti eramus
factus eras facti eratis
factus erat facti erant Fut. Perfect: factus ero facti erimus
factus eris facti eritis
factus erit facti erint Subjunctive Present: fiam fiamus
fias fiatis
fiat fiant Imperfect: fierem fieremus
fieres fieretis
fieret fierent to become Perfect: factus sim factus simus
factus sis factus sitis
factus sit factus sint Pluperfect: factus essem factus essemus
factus esses factus essetis
factus esset factus essent Imperative Participle Infinitive Singular: fi
Plural: fite Present: fieri
Perfect: factus esse none nolo, nolle, nolui volo, velle, volui malo, malle, malui to prefer Indicative Present: eo imus
is itis
it eunt Imperfect: ibam ibamus
ibas ibatis
ibat ibant Future: ibo ibimus
ibis ibitis
ibit ibunt Perfect: ii iimus
ibis ibitis
ibit ibunt Pluperfect: ieram ieramus
ieras ieratis
ierat ierant Fut. Perfect: iero ierimus
ieris ieritis
ierit ierint Subjunctive eo, ire, ii, iturus to go fio, fieri, (factus) Present: eam eamus
eas eatis
eat eant Imperfect: irem iremus
ires iretis
iret irent Perfect: ierim ierimus
ieris ieritis
ierit ierint Pluperfect: issem issemus
isses issetis
isset issent Imperative Participle Infinitive Singular: i
Plural: ite iens, Gen. euntis ire Indicative Subjunctive Present: malo malumus
mavis mavultis
mavult malunt Imperfect: malebam malebamus
malebas malebatis
malebat malebant Future: malam malamus
malas malatis
malat malant Perfect: malui maluimus
maluisti maluistis
maluit maluerunt Pluperfect: malueram malueramus
malueras malueratis
maluerat maluerant Fut. Perfect: maluero maluerimus
malueris malueritis
maluerit maluerint Present: malim malimus
malis malitis
malit malint Imperfect: mallem mallemus
malles malletis
mallet mallent Perfect: maluerim maluerimus
malueris malueritis
maluerit maluerint Pluperfect: maluissem maluissemus
maluisses maluissetis
maluisset maluissent Imperative Participle Infinitive none none Present: malle
Perfect: maluisse fero, ferre, tuli, latus to bear, carry Indicative Subjunctive Present: fero ferimus
fers fertis
fert ferunt Imperfect: ferebam ferebamus
ferebas ferebatis
ferebat ferebant Future: feram feremus
feres feretis
feret ferent Perfect: tuli tulimus
tulis tulitis
tulit tulerunt Pluperfect: tuleram tuleramus
tuleras tuleratis
tulerat tulerant Fut. Perfect: tulero tulerimus
tuleris tuleritis
tulerit tulerunt Present: feram feramus
feras feratis
ferat ferant Imperfect: ferrem ferremus
ferres ferretis
ferret ferrent Perfect: tulerim tulerimus
tuleris tuleritis
tulerit tulerint Pluperfect: tulissem tulissemus
tulisses tulissetis
tulisset tulissent Imperative Participle Infinitive Singular: fer
Plural: ferte Present: ferens
Perfect: latus
Future: laturus Present: ferre
Perfect: tulisse
Future: laturus esse Explanation: Supines are fourth declension verbal nouns that are based on the perfect passive participle. They only exist in two cases, accusative and ablative. The accusative supine is only used with verbs of motion to express a purpose. The ablative supine is used as an ablative of respect and is most often seen with adjectives like facilis and optimus. Accusative portatum doctum positum captum munitum
to carry/ to teach/ to put/ to take/ to build/
for carrying for teaching for putting for taking for building Example:
Latin: Populi factum cenam convenerunt.
English: The people assembled to make (for
making) dinner. Ablative portatu doctu positu captu munitu
in carrying, in teaching, in putting, in taking, in building,
to carry to teach to put to take to build Example:
Latin: Illud ea facile est dictu.
English: That is easy for her to say. Explanation: Passive periphrastic is the gerundive with a form of 'sum.' It conveys a strong obligation in the past, present, and future. The tense depends on the form of sum. Examples
Past - Latin: Laudandus erat.
English: He had to be praised.
Present - Latin: Laudandus est.
English: He must be praised.
Future - Latin: Laudandus erit.
English: He will have to be praised. Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. laudandus laudanda laudandum
Gen. laudandi laudandae laudandi
Dat. laudando laudandae laudando
Acc. laudandum laudandam laudandum
Abl. laudando laudanda laudando Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nom. laudandi laudandae laudanda
Gen. laudandorum laudandarum laudandorum
Dat. laudandis laudandis laudandis
Acc. laudandos laudandas laudanda
Abl. laudandis laudandis laudandis Agent Purpose Reference Special Verbs Separation With Adjectives Compound Verbs Possession Explanation: Dative of agent is used with the future passive participle to indicate the person upon whom an obligation rests. It also indicates necessity. Example:
Latin: Illa femina omnibus amanda est.
English: That woman ought to be loved by all. Explanation: Dative of purpose shows the reason for doing something. Example:
Latin: Locum saluti optant.
English: They chose the place for the purpose of
safety. Explanation: Dative of reference shows the person being referred to. It shows to whom or for whom the sake of something is done. Example:
Latin: Puella est pulchram multis.
English: The girl is beautiful according to many
people. Explanation: The dative is used with intransitive verbs that do not have direct objects. These verbs include confido, credo, desum, faveo, ignosco, impero, invideo, noceo, parco, pareo, persuadeo, placeo, praesto, resisto, and studeo. Example:
Latin: Tibi resistit sed mihi paret.
English: He resists you but obeys me. Explanation: The dative of separation is ususally used with people and occurs with verbs compounded with ab, de, and ex. Example:
Latin: Miles arma hosti detraxit.
English: The soldier took a weapon from the
enemy. Explanation: The dative is used with the adjectives amicus, idoneus, par, prozimus, similis, and utilis, as well as their opposites. It is translated using the word 'to' in English. Example:
Latin: Hic vir est similis illi.
English: This man is similar to that man. Explanation: The dative is used with compound verbs that are formed by putting a preposition in front of the verb root. Example:
Latin: Puellam cenae praeposui.
English: I put the girl in charge of dinner. Explanation: Dative of possession is used with forms of sum. It refers to body parts and names. Example:
Latin: Castra mihi est.
English: I have a camp. Explanation: The verb in the subordinate clause is present indicative, and the verb in the principal clause is also present indicative. Example:
Latin: Si tibi laudat, tibi felicem facit.
English: If he praises you, he makes you happy. Explanation: In both the subordinate clause and the principal clause either the imperfect, present, or perfect indicative are used. Example:
Latin: Si tibi laudavit, tibi felicem fecit.
English: If he has praised you, he has made you
happy. Explanation: In future more vivid conditions, both clauses contain verbs in the future indicative. Example:
Latin: Si tibi laudabit, tibi felicem faciet.
English: If he will praise you, he will make you
happy. Means Manner Accompaniment Place From Which Place Where Agent Time When Respect Description Measure of Difference Origin Comparison Cause Accordance Explanation: Ablative of Means expresses the means by which something is done. It does so without a preposition. It is only used with things, not people. Example:
Latin: Armis oppugnant.
English: They fought by means of arms. Explanation: The ablative of manner uses the preposition cum to describe how something is done. Cum can be omitted, however, if an adjective modifies the noun. Example:
Latin: Cum studio laborat.
English: He works with eagerness. Explanation: The ablative of accompaniment uses the preposition cum (not optional) when someone is with someone else. Example:
Latin: Cum puella venit.
English: He is comeing with the girl. Explanation: In ablative place from which, the ablative is used with the prepositions ab, de, and ex to express where something is coming from. Example:
Latin: Ex oppido venit.
English: He comes out of town. Explanation: The ablative is used with the prepositions in or sub to express where something is. The prepositions may be omitted with the words loco, locis, and parte and in fized expressions such as toto orbe terrarum (in the whole world). Example:
Latin: In Roma pervenit.
English: He arrived in Rome. Explanation: The ablative of agent uses the preposition a or ab with a passive verb to show the person by whom something is done. Example:
Latin: Ab amico amatur.
English: She is loved by her friend. Explanation: Ablative time when expresses when something happens without a preposition. Example:
Latin: Paucis diebus venit.
English: He arrived in a few days. Explanation: The ablative of respect answers the questions from what point of view, in respect to what, and according to what without a preposition. Example:
Latin: Nos amico superant.
English: They surpass us in courage. Explanation: The ablative is used with an adjective to describe a noun without a preposition. It is used to describe temporary qualities, while the genitive is used to describe permanent qualities. Example:
Latin: Hominem inimica facie est.
English: He is a man with an unfriendly appearance. Explanation: The ablative measure of difference expresses the difference between two things without a preposition. Example:
Latin: Multo maior est.
English: He is much larger (larger by much). Explanation: The ablative of origin can be used with or without a preposition (ab, de, ex). It expresses the origin of the subject. Example:
Latin: Puella bona familia nata est.
English: The girl was born of a good family. Explanation: The ablative can be used after a comparative adjective when the preposition quam is omitted. Example:
Latin: Aedificium amplius pedibus decem est.
English: The building is taller than ten feet. Explanation: The ablative of cause is used with verbs and adjectives that express feeling. It is used without a preposition. Example:
Latin: Puellam non cupidavit laborare iniuria.
English: He did not want the girl to suffer because
of the wrong. Explanation: The ablative of accordance is used with a few words to express an idea in accordance with. It is used without a preposition. Example:
Latin: Precem more suo dixit.
English: He said a prayer in accordance with his
custom. Absolute Explanation: An ablative absolute is a noun in the ablative used with a participle, adjective, or other noun that has no grammatical connection with any other word in its clause. It is often set off by commas and uses no preposition. Ablative absolutes are translated into English as a clause expressing time, cause, condition, means, or concession. Example:
Latin: Romanis victis, Galli aurem cupiverunt.
English: After the Romans were conquered, the
Gauls wanted gold. Explanation: Infinitives are verbal nouns that may be used as the subjects or objects of verbs. They exist in the present, perfect, and future tenses, as well as the active and passive voices. Present Active Passive 2nd Principal Part of Verb Conjugation: 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd -io 4th
portare docere ponere capere munire In the 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations, the present passive infinitive is formed by changing the final -e of the present active infinitive to -i. in the 3rd conjugation the final -ere is changed to -i. Conjugation: 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd -io 4th
portari doceri poni capi muniri Perfect Active Passive Formed by dropping the final -i of the 3rd principal part and adding -isse. Conjugation: 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd -io 4th
portavisse docuisse posuisse cepisse munivisse Fomed by using the 4th principal part plus esse. Conjugation:
1st portatus, -a, -um esse
2nd doctus, -a, -um esse
3rd positus, -a, -um esse
3rd -io captus, -a, -um esse
4th munitus, -a, -um esse Future Active Formed by dropping the -us, -a, -um of the perfect passive participle and adding -urus, -a, -um plus esse. Conjugation:
1st portaurus, -a, -um esse
2nd docturus, -a, -um esse
3rd positurus, -a, -um esse
3rd -io capturus, -a, -um esse
4th muniturus, -a, -um esse Passive The future passive infinitive is extremely rare and is not explained in the book. Explanation: 3rd declension I-Stem nouns differ from constant-stem nouns in that they have a genitive plural ending of -ium. Masculine + Feminine Neuter Nom. civis cives mare maria
Gen. civis civium maris marium
Dat. civi civibus mari maribus
Acc. civem cives mare maria
Abl. cive civibus mari maribus Singular Plural Singular Plural Explanation: Adjectives in Latin can be either positive, comparative, or superlative. The comparative adjective is formed by adding -ior (M. and F.), -ius (N.) to the base of the positive. The majority of adjectives form their superlative degree by adding -issimus, -a, -um to the base of the positive. If the nom. sg. m. form ends in -r or -er the superlative ends in -errimus, -a, -um. There are also six adjectives whose base ends in -l- and have a superlative that ends in -illimus, -a, -um. Positive Comparative Superlative altus, -a, -um altior, -ius higher altissimus, -a, -um highest
fortis, -e fortior, -ius stronger fortissimus, -a, -um strongest
liber, -a, -um liberior, -ius freer liberrimus, -a, -um freest
acer, acris, acre acrior, -ius sharper acerrimus, -a, -um sharpest
facilis, -e facilior, -ius easier facillimus, -a, -um easiest Explanation: Indirect statements indirectly state the thoughts or words of another. The main verb is often a verb of saying, declaring, knowing, thinking, hearing, perceiving, etc. They have verbs in the infinitive with their subjects accusative. Example:
Latin: Puto puellas eius timuisse.
English: I think that the girls were afraid of
him. 1. acutus, -a, -um – sharp
2. adhaereo, -ere, -haesi, -haesus – stick, (to), cling (to)
3. aedificium, -i – n. building
4. aeger, -ra, -rum – sick
5. ala, -ae – f. wing
6. amplus, -a, -um – great, magnificent
7. angustus, -a, -um – narrow
8. arbitror, arbitrary, arbitrates – think
9. atrium, -i – n. atrium, hall
10. balneum, -i – n.
11. cano, -ere, cecini, cantus – sing (about), tell
12. carus, -a, -um – dear, expensive, esteemed
13. ceteri, -ae, -a – the other(s)
14. cliens, -entis – m. client
15. colligo, -ere, -legi, -lectus – collect
16. consentio, -ire, -sensi, -sensus – agree
17. constituo, -ere, -stitui, -stitutus – determine, decide
18. consumo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptus – use up, spend
19. contemno, -ere, -tempsi, -temptus – despise
20. cotidie – daily A - Co 21. culpa, -ae – f. blame, fault
22. cum –when
23. decimus, -a, um – tenth
24. defessus, -a, -um – tired
25. deinde – then, thereafter
26. depono, -ere, -posui, -positus – put aside, put down
27. descendo, -ere, descendi, descensus - descend
28. dignus, -a, -um – worthy
29. doleo, -ere, dolui, doliturus – grieve
30. editus, -a, -um – elevated
31. edo, -ere, edidi, editus – give out, publish, utter, inflict
32. eicio, -ere, eieci, eiectus – throw out
33. enim – for
34. excipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus – receive
35. existimo, -are, -avi, -atus – think
36. exitus, -us – m. outcome, departure
37. felix, -icis – happy, fortunate, successful
38. fleo, flere, flevi, fletus – weep (for)
39. fero, ferre, tuli, latus – carry, bear, bring
40. gaudium, -i – n. joy Cu - Ga 41. gubernator, -oris – m. pilot, helmsman
42. hospes, hospitis – m. host, guest, guest-friend
43. incendo, -ere, incendi, incensus – set on fire, burn
44. ingredior, ingredi, ingressus – step into, enter
45. insignis, -e – noted
46. ita – so, in such a way, thus
47. iterum – again
48. iuvenis, -is – m. young man
49. loquor, loqui, locutus – talk
50. maiores, -um – m. pl. ancestors
51. matures, -a, -um – early, quick, ripe
52. mirus, -a, -um – wonderful
53. mercator, -oris – m. merchant
54. mora, -ae – f. delay
55. mulier, mulieris – f. woman, wife
56. namque – for
57. necesse – necessary (indeclinable)
58. ne…quidem – not even
59. nondum – not yet
60. nonus, -a, -um – ninth Gu - N 61. octavus, -a, -um eighth
62. oculus, -i – m. eye
63. opera, -ae – f. work, effort
64. palus, paludis – f. swamp
65. passus, -us – m. step, pace
66. peritus, -a, -um – skilled
67. perterreo, -ere, -terrui, -territus – scare thoroughly, alarm
68. perturbo, perturbare, perturbavi, perturbatus – disturb, throw into confusion
69. pontifex, pontificis – m. priest
70. portus, -us – m. harbor, port
71. posteaquam – after
72. posterus, -a, -um – following
73. praeterea – besides
74. prehendo, -ere, -hendi, -hensus – grasp, seize
75. quam primum – as soon as possible
76. quartus, -a, -um – fourth
77. quidem – at least, to be sure
78. quies, -etis – f. rest
79. quietus, -a, -um – quiet
80. recte – rightly O - Rec 81. reficio, -ere, refeci, refectus – repair
82. rideo, -ere, risi, risus – laugh (at)
83. rumpo, -ere, rupi, ruptus – break
84. saepe – often
85. satis - enough
86.septimus, -a, -um – seventh
87. sextus, -a, -um – sixth
88. silentium, -i – n. silence
89. somnus, -i – m. sleep
90. sordidus, -a, -um dirty, disreputable
91. statim – at once, immediately
92. surgo, -ere, surrexi, surrecturus – rise
93. tam – so, such
94. tandem – finally, at last
95. tantus, -a, -um – so great
96. tempestas, -tatis – f. storm
97. tot – so many
98. veho, -ere, vexi, vectus – carry
99. viginti – twenty (indeclinable)
100. volvo, -ere, volvi, volutus – roll, turn over Ref - V
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