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Transcript of Decision Tree!
September 11, 2001 Nixon's Record Keeping
July 1973 Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1962 Positives Through Kennedy's announcements about the dangers of the situation, he made the standard for presidents to react quickly and publicly to national threats and crises. It reinforced power in executive branch, mostly due to the debates between the President and his cabinet and advisors, where the President made the ultimate decision. Although many of his close advisors wanted to take immediate and drastic military action, Kennedy used his executive power to find a peaceful solution. Although media was becoming very present in society, the President did not react to the opinions of partisan media, but rather examined the situation and made an educated decision rather than a pushed, irrational one. Negatives Despite the fact that nuclear warfare was avoided, the event itself could have been alleiviated prior to the thirteen day crisis. While this moment in history was significant, it was not the most important regarding the presidency because there was too much indecisiveness over what to do. Positives With the increase of rapid advancement in technology, the President has to be very cautious so that the top secret topics discussed do not get publicized and known to the public and possible potential enemies. This new cautious attitude helps the President control what he says because if one thing is mispoken (ex. Clinton's affairs), the mistake would be revealed and could potentially ruin the reputation. This new caution forces the President to remain smart and responsible. Negatives Forces the President to be more secretive and hide things from America that could possibly affect the country. The secrecy helps cause more corruption. Who is to say that the President isn't still keeping secret records? Nixon's record keeping was more of an internal situation, while external situations like modern warfare and foreign relations could be considered more impactful. Positives Negatives It caused the people to trust and put more confidence in the President, which helped the country grow closer and stronger under his leadership. This unity has still continued on to today, and was mentioned by President Obama in the State of the Union Address. The situation was temporary. For a while the country looked to the President for guidance, but as the years pass and the event starts to fade from peoples' mind the Presidency has returned back to the way it was previously. The reshaping of the Presidency has not exactly been for the better. Many Americans look at the President now even more cynically than before, which does not help him when he makes decisions, especially about warfare. It has given the Presidency more power concerning possible acts of war or terrorism. The President must work and react quickly to any violent act, and through this need of rapid decisions the President has more power in the decision making process. Since the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States had never been attacked at home. When September 11 occurred, the Presidency grew in that it had to be prepared for any homefront attacks. This included being prepared to make those difficult decisions and helping make a plan for those whom the attack affected. This new responsibility for the President also raised the pressure to act and control when war-like events occur. While this might not seem like a bad thing, the new generations of people that were not around for World War I or II or the Vietnam War are not aware of how much pressure this can be, and it can cause stress and failure within the Presidency. Although it appeared that the world was at the brink of war, America had the mutual destruction assurance that would prevent both sides from actually pushing the button. However, in today's world, nuclear threats can come from anywhere, even a random person. The Presidency has become even more difficult due to the fact that America is not only facing Russia anymore, but rather anyone with nuclear capabilities. The President knew that the threat of communism was growing, but he never pushed for a connection to Russia (phone lines, message system, etc.). Although a line was made, there was poor foreign diplomacy. With the increase of technology in today's society, America could still have better foreign diplomacy with other nations. The open record keeping forces the President to be accountable with the people. If there is a debate about what the President's opinion is, the President would have to be honest because what they say could easily be double checked with the records. This new honesty and accountability helps the President not sway back and forth on their decisions or even their campaign promises, because now every word spoken is never forgotten. The revealing of the tapes caused the American people to distrust the Presidency, making it harder, even in today's society, to make decisions and act without getting unpopular remarks or cynical comments. This makes it hard to act as President. NIXON'S RECORD KEEPING
JULY, 1973 CUBAN
OCTOBER, 1962 ATTACK ON THE WORLD
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 The Most Important Event that Reshaped the Modern American Presidency was: September 11, 2001... ...because an event like that had not happened since 1941, and with it came the introduction of a completely new type of modern warfare. The President was forced to become prepared for this new type of warfare and understand that at any moment he could be informed of a disaster and have to react quickly, decide even faster, and go before the country as a figurehead and speaker to calm the people down. This new stress forces the President to have new pressures of control, preparedness, discipline, and action in a way that the President has never had to be before. Top Three Events in American History that Reshaped the Modern Presidency