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Anth111 Spr16 Rudies, Rastafari Indep.

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Julie Jenkins

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of Anth111 Spr16 Rudies, Rastafari Indep.

1950s & 1960s- Industrialization
--Jamaican Industrial Development Corporation
-Financed via North American Corps
-tax breaks, import duty relief
-Manufacturing & export of furnture, garments, footwear
-cheap labor/imported raw materials
-examine how Jamaica's economic & political structures changed in 1950s, 60s, & 70s

-how musical expression was used to confront these changes via Ska (Rude- Boys) & Reggae
--MNCs from US & Canada establish Bauxite mining
Creole Nationalism:
Rudies, Rastafari &
Jamaican Independence

Vision of Development after the Creation of Bretton Woods Institutions
-1944
"modernization theories"

Europe a 'model' to be applied to the rest
--focus on industrialization
These industries..
--expanded work opportunities & created some economic security
But...
--employed fewer Jamaicans than agricultural production
--real income cut in half
--more alienation from land
--increased reliance on imported food
--food shortages
--increased crime b/c of lack of employment options
--housing shortages
--Some Afro-Jamaicans used educational opps to enter into professional employment
--middle-class
--but they didn't support a Rastafarian ideology or black nationalism.

plans for Jamaica's independence 1944-1962
--1944- Universal Adult Sufferage
--1957- Britain starts to relinquish control; Jamaican representatives control economic policies
--1959-- Prime Minister, autonomous government; Britain only in relation to foreign policy
--1962-- Full Independence.
Need to create a sense of Nationalism
"Out of Many, One People"
--Creole Nationalism
--emphasized racial equality, but "Africa" perceived as 'heritage'
--to unite, but not to glamorize

Coral Gardens - 1963
Middle-class perception of Rude Boys & Rastafarians as criminals, lazy, lacking in education, violent
Rude Boy (Rudie)
--young men
--ideas taken from Rastafarianism, but distinctly different
Ska & Rocksteady
--1st- R&B from US
--created sound-systems
--dub-versions
--Ska formed by incorporating R&B with folk music
1960s- highest income inequality in world
--wealthiest 20% of population owns 61% of the nation's wealth
--10% owns 64% of land
--1960- unemployment 12%
1969- unemployment 31%
political participation more equal (in terms of voting), some social mobility
--but...majority excluded from control of economic resources or manufacturing/tourism industries.
"understand the range of contemporary cultural formations among black Jamaicans vis a vie ongoing negotiation of dynamic systems of power and domination at historically specific junctures" Thomas
--GDP increased 6-7%, but income gaps widening
--real income of the majority cut in half.
WHY???
further marginalization of the poor, while benefiting the Jamaican higher/middle classes
Creole Nationalism--
--distanced from the perceived "backwardness" of the practices and values of urban and rural lower classes

--increased need to control those that challenge the ideals of Creole Nationalism
So what forms of cultural expression emerged in the 1950s & 1960s? How are they challenging to the social, political, & economic order?
Rudies in court, now boys, rudies in court
Rudies in court, now boys, rudies in court

Order, now, this court is in session
And I order all you rude boys to stand
You're brought here [Incomprehensible]

Now tell me, rude boys
What have you to say for yourselves ?
Your honor, rudies don't fear

Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear
Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear

Rougher than rough, tougher than tough
Strong like lion, we are iron

Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear
Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear

Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear
Rudies don't fear, no boys, rudies don't fear

Rougher than rough, tougher than tough
Strong like lion, we are iron

Rudies not free yet, boys, rudies not free
Rudies not free yet, boys, rudies not free
"The Harder They Come"

Well, they tell me of a pie up in the sky
Waiting for me when I die
But between the day you're born and when you die
They never seem to hear even your cry

So as sure as the sun will shine
I'm gonna get my share now, what's mine
And then the harder they come
The harder they fall, one and all
Ooh, the harder they come
The harder they fall, one and all

Well, the oppressors are trying to keep me down
Trying to drive me underground
And they think that they have got the battle won
I say forgive them Lord, they know not what they've done

'Cause, as sure as the sun will shine
I'm gonna get my share now, what's mine
And then the harder they come
The harder they fall, one and all
Ooh, the harder they come
Harder they fall, one and all


And I keep on fighting for the things I want
Though I know that when you're dead you can't
But I'd rather be a free man in my grave
Than living as a puppet or a slave

So as sure as the sun will shine
I'm gonna get my share now, what's mine
And then the harder they come
The harder they fall, one and all
Ooh, the harder they come
Harder they fall, one and all
Hey, the harder they come
Harder they fall, one and all
What I say now
What I Say now

What I say now
What I say, one time
The harder they come, the harder they fall, one and all
The harder they come, the harder they fall, one and all

--belonging to a nation-state
--continuation of colonial values and legitimizing class-based political domination.
--obscured issures surrounding class & race, & white cultural hegemony
1972- Michael Manley (PNP)
--alliance of lower class, rural peasantry, progressive middle-class
--used Rastafarian symbols within campaign

"Haile Selasie I is our God; Henry Claudius is our King; Michael Manley is our Joshua" (Henry Claudius)
How did this affect the Rasta community?
Political vs Religious Rastafari
--"liberate" before "repatriate"
--vs. can't "develop" the "shit-system" of capitalism-- it can't become Zion
What was Manley's vision?
Social Reforms
--minimum wage
--free education through university
--subsidized meals/
transport for students
--literacy programs
--housing program
Economic Reforms
--Land distribution
--Nationalized banks, electricity
--bauxite levy
More economic mobility
--black entrepreneurship starts to take off
--able to receive loans
--migration of some upper/middle class to US
But...affected by Oil Crisis of 1970s
--cost of oil rises from J$65 mil in 1973 to J$177 mil in 1974
--Bauxite declines production/export
-prices of staple food items increase
-decline in tourist industry
-International banks stop extending new loans
IMF loans $75 Million in 1977
--recover economy to be able to re-pay existing debts
Structural Adjustment Loans:
1. reduction of public spending (social programs, food subsidies)
2. currency devaluation
3. privatization of state enterprises (industry, water, electricity, phones)
4. reduction of wages to attract foreign investors
5. reduce export prices
6. trade liberalization (eliminate restrictions on imports)
didn't meet all the conditions
--reduced ability for future loans
--1980- worse condition than before loans
No, Joshua, no
No, Joshua, no
No, Joshua, no
No, Joshua, no

You took them out of bondage and they thank you for it
You sung them songs of love and they try to sing with it
But now in the desert, are you battered and bruised?
They think they are forsaken, they think they have been used

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
Rasta is watching and blaming you

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
They say, you must forward and start anew

You know those who fought for you, you thank them for it
You led them across the Red Sea when fear of drown in it
But now in the jungle, you man, shout out, Lion
Older men are patient but they long for Zion

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
Rasta is watching and blaming you

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
They say, you must forward and start anew

No, Joshua, no
No, Joshua, no
No, Joshua, no
I say, no, Joshua, no

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
Rasta is watching and blaming you

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
They say, you must forward and start anew

You took them out of bondage and they thank you for it
You sung them songs of love and they try to sing with it
But now in the jungle, shouting, Lion
Older men are patient, but they long for Zion

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
Rasta is watching and blaming you, blaming you, blaming you

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
They say, you must forward and start anew

Since you are my friend, Joshua
Know, Joshua
Rasta is watching and blaming you

Since you are my friend, Joshua
I think you should know, Joshua
They say, you must
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, wo oh oh.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, yeah.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, oh.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution.
The poor man a feel it, oh ah!
The poor man a feel it, yeah ah!
The poor man a feel it, oh ah!
The poor man feel it, yeah ah!

Gas gone up.
Bus fare gone up.
The rent gone up.
For meal gone up
Lighting gone up.
The tax gone up.
Car parts gone up.
And mi can't take the first law.

And there has -
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, yeah ah.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution!
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, wo oh oh oh.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution.
Only the poor man a feel it, yeah ah!
The poor man a feel it, oh ah!
The poor man feel it, stand up!
Only him feel it, yeah, ah!


Time gone up.
Scallion gone up.
Onion gone up.
Red beans gone up.
Black pepper gone up.
Chicken gone up.
And the parents them angry,
'Cause the [children] them hungry.

And there has -
Gotta be a solution to this pollution, right now, yeah.
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, promises won't help!
Gotta find a solution to this pollution, we've been waiting,
For a solution to this pollution.
Only the poor man a feel it, yeah ah!
Only them a feel it, oh ah!
Only the poor man a feel it, yeah ah!
Only him feel it, oh ah!
Only the poor man a feel it, every time!
Only the poor man a feel it, yeah ah..
Peter Tosh, The Poor Man Feel it
Election of 1980- Seaga
--institutes more IMF conditions
-Farmers unable to compete
-businesses led by Afro- Jamaican declined
--cuts to health care, education, social programs
--"Blackness" believed by upper classes to have brought about country's ruin
--Reggae declines
--emergence of Dancehall

Dancehall
--name from sound-systems of 1950s
--deejays over dub-plates
--toasting
--sound clashes
--dancehall queen competitions
--glorification of sex, guns & drug-trade
--"Slackness"
Full transcript