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Senior Modern History: The Vietnam/American War

Here the involvement of the US will be looked at through to full deployment and official war in Vietnam. Issues of US public disapproval of the war and US foreign policy will also be examined.

Ryan Slavin

on 30 January 2015

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Transcript of Senior Modern History: The Vietnam/American War

any ideas?
Where and when in the world might this event be happening?
The decisions made: Geneva Accords of '54:

A ceasefire in the Indochina War
Vietnam was divided along the 17th Parallel of latitude
Elections promised in 1956 to unify Vietnam (democratisation)
Full independence and neutrality for Cambodia and Laos
Arrangements for the return to their homes of refugees
Creation of International Supervisory Commission made up of Canada, India, and Poland to oversee the implementation of the agreements

For further information refer to Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia. pp.495-499
But what about Australia?
By 1968 anti-war protests were gaining momentum in Australia because they were opposed to the conscription of young men and believed that the war could not be won. A "Don't Register" campaign which dissuaded young men from conscripting gained support and some of the protests became violent.In May 1970, over 200,000 Australians marched in the first Moratorium against the Vietnam War.

Australian Involvement in Vietnam 2011 Homefront. avaliable at: http://australianinvolvementinvietnam.wikispaces.com/Homefront
Dept. Veteran Affairs 2011. Australia and the Vietnam War - Aftermath. Available at: http://vietnam-war.commemoration.gov.au/aftermath/
A pupil from Castle Hill High School in 1970 delivered a speech about the support from students from the steps of Sydney’s town hall to a huge crowd of protestors against the Vietnam War at a moratorium rally.
The student is impressively articulate in front of the large crowd. The speech gives a sense of the divisions being caused in the broader community as a result of the war.

Video Sources:
National Film & Sound Archive 2011. Or Forever Hold Your Peace. Available at: http://aso.gov.au/titles/documentaries/or-forever-hold-your-peace/clip2/?nojs=
Vietnam War Protests - Melbourne, Australia 1971. Available at Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Thm03IUiJ6U&feature=related
But how did it all come to this?
Let's go back in time now...
Quote by President D. Eisenhower in response to a question on strategic importance of Indochina, 1954:

...you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the 'falling domino' principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that will go over very quickly So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences.

Source: cited in Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia. p.497
Quote by President D. Eisenhower:

"Well, it is very important, and the great idea of setting up an organism is so as to defeat the domino result. When, each standing alone, one falls, it has the effect on the next, and finally the whole row is down. You are trying, through a unifying influence, to build that row of dominoes so they can stand the fall of one, if necessary."

Source: Excerpt from The President's News Conference of 5/12/54, available at:http://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/stephanies-site/dwight-d-eisenhower-and-domino-theory
Responding to secondary evidence: Political Cartoon analysis
Who is depicted in the cartoon, how are they being
Describe what is happening in the cartoon (what is the symbolism) in terms of
meaning and
does the cartoon corroborate with the previous quote from President Eisenhower? How?
from Whose perspective is this cartoon drawn? how do you know?
Go to the Shambles Pad for co-operative note-taking and back-channeling...
But what concerned the US enough to move from observers in Indochina to involvement?
But what does Ho Chi Minh and the Communist party have to worry about? Soon there will free elections, won't there?
The elections planned for July 1956 never happened. Ho and his supporters claimed this was because the US-sponsored government (puppet govt.) of Sth. Vietnam knew it would lose. The Sth. Vietnamese & US claimed that free and fair elections were impossible.

Who am I?
Take a look now at the arguments for and against Ho Chi Minh and his govt. waging guerrilla war >>> p.499 of Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia.

Evaluate which case is stronger according to this evidence provided, prepare your position (TEEC) and discuss/debate as a class)
Here I am with President D. Eisenhower in 1957.
Here I am with President L. B. Johnson in 1961
Whoever I am, do you think I am a supporter of Ho? Why?
American Professor of History at Kentucky University George Herring in his 'America's Longest War (1996, cited in Dennett et al. 2008: p.500) states the following about Ngo Dinh Diem,

'In any event, political reform would have been lost on Diem, for whom democracy was alien in terms of experience and temperament. Inasmuch as he has had a political philosophy, it was the vague concept of 'personalism', a fusion of Western and Eastern ideas Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu used for rationalisation for absolute power, distrust of popular rule, and the belief that a small elite was responsible for defining the general welfare. Good government, Diem once asserted, was not a collection of laws but the 'simple and patient art of fusing in a harmonious synthesis the desirable diversity of conceptions and the inevitable complexity of reality'.

Diem's vague words only slightly obscured his authoritarian tendencies. His model was the Emperor Ming Mang, the nineteenth-century 'reformer' who created an assembly of mandarins to approve his royal decrees. Diem's philosophy of government was expressed with uncharacteristic succinctness in a line he personally added to the constitution: 'The President is vested with the leadership of the nation.' He identified his principles with the general good and firmly believed that the people must be guided by the paternalistic hand of those who knew what was best for them.

1) As a class, let's make a list of the attributes of 'GOOD GOVERNANCE' (qualities needed in an individual to lead in the democratic sense, plus, consider a leader attempting to lead a developing country, under threat, and in need of land reform on the path to democracy.)
Do the leaders of our present political parties possess these characteristics?

2) Now, identify in the document above and in your profile of Diem evidence of whether Diem possessed the necessary attributes from your list
On 2 November 1963, Diem (pictured) and his brother Nhu were assassinated following a military coup.

Photo & text source: Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia. p.511
Sound familiar?
So who was the better leader? Who should lead Vietnam? Ho or Diem?
lets read pages 501-503 of Dennett, B. et al. 2008. Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia.
of each leader in one colour and the
in another; then decide who was the better leader and why.
AS elections never came to unify Vietnam infiltration from the north did.
So did the US benefit by backing the DIEM govt.? Or would they have been better off supporting Ho Chi Minh? What do you think?

There were three important aspects to US foreign policy from 1945 through to 1975:

CONTAINMENT (Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan)

WIKIPEDIA JIGSAW ACTIVITY: a great place to 'start'!
The teacher will assign one term per group >>> each group will cover the 'W' questions on their respective term >>> then your group will add the information to the Pad.
the US, in order to get around the Geneva Accords, had set about 'nation building' in South Vietnam. They chose to create a nation. Their first priority was to establish an anti-communist state and perhaps, in time, a democratic one in America's own image. As a result of these hopes, the US was committed to [the leader in South Vietnam] Diem.
Source: Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia. p.502
'Some historians argue that Kennedy was convinced that Vietnam was a place that had to be defended against communism and that he believed in the Domino Theory.' (Dennett et al 2008)

Is this corroborated in JFK's speech? lets take a look!
'Others claim that JFK would not have gone as far as his successor Lyndon Johnson and that, if he lived, he would have reduced America's commitment to Vietnam after a victory in the 1964 presidential election.' (Dennett et al 2008)
KEY QUESTION: How committed was Kennedy to South Vietnam?
1. Consider the evidence you have just witnessed...
2. Take a look at what the research of David Kaiser (2000) has to say about US commitment to the Vietnam conflict. Look at the dot points on pp.505-506 of Dennett et al. (2008), highlight significant points to support argument over
whether JFK would have escalated US involvement in the conflict as his successor LBJ did
Form Your position and...

Enter... LBJ
Who was Mike Mansfield?
Why was he seen as a significant figure?
And, What can be learnt from him for the future?
Read p. 509 of Dennett (2008) and respond to the questions above.
From the sources that follow, in your groups note in a CAUSE and EFFECT diagram significant events, quotes, & information that contributed to escalation under the Johnson administration. NB: you will use this information to write a TEEC paragraph afterward.
Kim Phuc was the subject of a Pulitzer-Prize winning photograph during the Vietnam War taken in 1972, when she was a child, running naked down a road, screaming in pain from the napalm that was burning through her skin. The photograph has come to epitomize the tragedy of the Vietnam War.

Source: global security organisation, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/napalm.htm
To what extent can an act of war be defined as criminal (war crimes)?

Let's take a closer look at the event through analysing the source in Hoepper (1996, pp.116-121) together as a class.

For your own further reading, go to:

1) Dennet, B. et al. (2008) Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford Press. pp. 524 - 526.



But, have we learnt anything from this?
Let's create a EXTENT BAROMETER using source evidence, on the issue: 'To what extent can an act of war be defined as criminal?' Some categories might be 'pressure under fire'; 'difficult orders'; 'exposure to graphic material'; 'psychological state'; 'poor training' others?
What could bring a person to do this?
How would being ordered to do this affect your mental state?
And, is there an ethical line that can't be crossed during war?
Was the TET OFFENSIVE the 'turning point' in the war?
Now go to:


... and answer the earlier question about the 'TET OFFENSIVE' by explaining what the TEXTBOOKS say; what the HISTORIANS say; what the SOURCES say and how they differ according to this website.

... now take a look at the differing historical evaluations of the Tet Offensive in Dennett et al. (2008, p.523) and explain who you think benefited from the Offensive (the US or the Communists) and why.
But how did this war wind up?
Now, how was an end to the war achieved after the Tet Offensive?
This photo (and the news film) was seen around the world during the Tet Offensive of 1968. It shows a Saigon police chief, on the spot, executing a man who had been captured as an NLF guerilla involved in the Tet Offensive. How do you think people seeing this on their TV screens would have reacted? Do you think the Saigon police chief was committing a war crime? At the time, the police chief had just received the news that members of his friend's family had been killed by the NLF during the Tet Offensive (Hoepper 1996, p.124). Does this influence your reaction to the photograph?
Read pages 124 - 126 of Hoepper (1996) 'From Tet to Victory: 1968-1975, and answer the questions. Also, research and define what the Paris peace talks; 'Vietnamisation'; and the 'Watergate Scandel' were and their effect on the US campaign in Vietnam, and add them to the ShamblesPad.

Then, in an extended piece of writing (approx. 150 words per question) answer the following:

'How did the US & North Vietnamese strategies differ throughout the Vietnam War?'

'Why did an anti-war movement develop in the US in the late 1960s?'

'Were the hopes of most Vietnamese realised by 1975?'
Go to the following site on the film 'The Fog of War': http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6733596013688235740#

Now watch the section from 1 hr. 06 min. on the Vietnam campaign. After viewing US Secretary of Defence (at the time of the Vietnam War) McNamara's retrospective view on the Vietnam War, does it change the way in which you view the campaign? Explain.
lyrics by Neil Young
Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.

Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are gunning us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?

Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are gunning us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?

Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.
A protest song written and composed by Neil Young in June 1970, and performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.
War, social protest and music!
KEY QUESTION: What was the social sentiment like in the US & Australia about the Vietnam War?
GOLD: 8-10 contributions to the SWOT analysis
SILVER: 5-7 contributions to the SWOT analysis
BRONZE: 2-4 Contributions to the SWOT analysis
By the end of this section, you will have considered whether
'social protest can bring about the end of war'
Also, note on the Pad any extra information you would like to know in order to feel more informed... do you have questions?
Our starting point is 1970, well into the Vietnam War...
Section 2 : The Geneva Accords
KEY QUESTION: 'How significant was the Geneva Accords to the continuation of war in Indochina after 1954?'
Learning Intent:
K: Key countries and decisions made at the Geneva Accords in 1954
U: Effects as a result of the decisions made at the Accords.
Success criteria:
- Can discuss the decisions made at the Accords and identify the MOTIVES behind them
- Can identify the CAUSE for the decisions made and how they AFFECTED the future administration of Indochina
S: Analyse information and evaluate its relevance and accuracy
Section 3: US Foreign Policy
KEY QUESTION: 'What was US foreign policy and how did it impact on the continuation of war in Indochina after 1954?'
Learning intent:
K: Key elements of US foreign policy at the time of the Vietnam War
U: Understand the motives behind US foreign policy and its effect on Indochina
S: Evaluate the most significant policies in terms of their effect on Indochina
success criteria:
Key US foreign policy points are explained (the 'W' questions covered) on the ShamblesPad with reference to the MOTIVES of the U.S. and their EFFECTS on Indochina.

Contributed to and now understand both sides of the debate over US involvement in Vietnam. Then, decide which side you support.
Well, come on all of you, big strong men,
Uncle Sam needs your help again.
He's got himself in a terrible jam
Way down yonder in Vietnam
So put down your books and pick up a gun,
We're gonna have a whole lotta fun.

And it's one, two, three,
What are we fighting for ?
Don't ask me, I don't give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam;
And it's five, six, seven,
Open up the pearly gates,
Well there ain't no time to wonder why,
Whoopee! we're all gonna die.

Come on Wall Street, don't be slow,
Why man, this is war au-go-go
There's plenty good money to be made
By supplying the Army with the tools of its trade,
But just hope and pray that if they drop the bomb,
They drop it on the Viet Cong.

And it's one, two, three,
What are we fighting for ?
Don't ask me, I don't give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam.
And it's five, six, seven,
Open up the pearly gates,
Well there ain't no time to wonder why
Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
Well, come on generals, let's move fast;
Your big chance has come at last.
Now you can go out and get those reds
'Cause the only good commie is the one that's dead
And you know that peace can only be won
When we've blown 'em all to kingdom come.

And it's one, two, three,
What are we fighting for ?
Don't ask me, I don't give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam;
And it's five, six, seven,
Open up the pearly gates,
Well there ain't no time to wonder why
Whoopee! we're all gonna die.

Come on mothers throughout the land,
Pack your boys off to Vietnam.
Come on fathers, and don't hesitate
To send your sons off before it's too late.
And you can be the first ones in your block
To have your boy come home in a box.

And it's one, two, three
What are we fighting for ?
Don't ask me, I don't give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam.
And it's five, six, seven,
Open up the pearly gates,
Well there ain't no time to wonder why,
Whoopee! we're all gonna die.
Country Joe and the Fish: 'I feel like i'm fixing to die rag' (performed in 1969 at Woodstock Music Festival)
What themes are referenced in this song? List them.
The anti-war movement (at its highest in 1970-71) did not end the Vietnam War, but it was one of a number of factors, as well as the "television war", which ensured that the nature and conduct of the war remained in people's consciousness week after week. But it must be noted that Australia announced that it would withdraw its troops in August 1971, and the last US combat troops left Vietnam exactly a year later...
Let's fill in the blanks with a little narrative:
Dennett, B. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford Uni Press, Australia. pp. 530-531.
1. What does the following high school pupil explicitly state the school is doing?

2. According to this pupil, what is the implicit role of her school at this time in Australia? And, can you make any connections to past historical learning?

3. Can you imagine yourself being passionate enough to do this?
Can you think of any contemporary foreign policy parallels?
After the defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu a conference was held on 8 May 1954 in the old League of Nations Building in Geneva. The conference was chaired by Britain and the Soviet Union. There were representatives from:
Communist China
The Viet Minh, essentially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)
South Vietnam and the USA as observers.

Speculate on What each representative nation might have wanted for Indochina and why.
If time, run a conference simulation after evaluating each potential representative nation's wishes in an icon prompt.
dIscussion: Do you think this is a genuine concern?
June 11, 1963, in a busy Saigon street, 66yr old monk Thich Quang Due commits suicide in protest.
1. What effects do you think this act of self-immolation would have on the people of Vietnam?
2. What effects might it have outside Vietnam?
3. What does this act suggest about the values,character and commitment of the monk concerned?
'Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.'
George Santayana, cited in Cowie 1993: p.1
'What experience and History teach is this - that people and governments have never learned anything from History, or acted upon principles deduced from it.'
George W. F. Hegel, cited in Cowie 1993: p.2
But, it is not too late to 'buck' this trend. No pressure on you :), This is why you study history - you are the 'keepers of the keys', in YOUR hands is the responsibility to act justly as you are the informed ones! ... the next generation of WORLD LEADERS!
section 4 : Governance in Southern Vietnam
Learning intent:
K: Know who was the initial leader of Southern Vietnam after 1954
U: Understand the effects of his leadership
S: EVALUATE the degree to which he was a good/poor leader and MAKE CONNECTIONS with contemporary issues relating to International Relations
Success Criteria:
Created a PROFILE of general information relating to the leader featured in this section.

Noted/listed the features of good governance in comparison and contrast with the administration of South Vietnam

Evaluated to what degree Sth. Vietnam's governance was successful, and be sure to justify in one or two paragraphs.
How was Southern Vietnam governed after the '54 Accords?
Forgive the brief digression!!!!!!
When the voters arrived at the polling booth they found Diem's supporters in attendance.

One voter (cited in Dennet 2008) complained afterwards:
"They told us to put the red ballot into envelopes and throw the green one's into the wastebasket. A few people, faithful to Bao Dai, disobeyed. As soon as they left, the agents went after them and roughed them up... They beat one of my relatives to a pulp."
1. How would this affect the voting?
2. What does this suggest about the confidence of Diem and the confidence the South Vietnamese people had in Diem?
The Main religion in Vietnam was Buddhism.

Surveys conducted in the 1960s suggest that approx. 70% of the population was Buddhist.
As the French left the Catholics managed to hold onto their power in the country.Diem was a devout Catholic and tended to promote people to positions that shared his beliefs. This angered Buddhists, especially when the new government refused to repeal the anti-Buddhist laws passed by the French.
Ngo Dinh Diem
The first president of South Vietnam (1955–1963). In the wake of the French withdrawal from Indochina as a result of the 1954 Geneva Accords, Diem led the effort to create the Republic of Vietnam (Spencer Tucker Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War, 1998).

The accords allowed for freedom of movement between the two zones until October 1954; this was to put a large strain on the south. Diem had only expected 10,000 refugees, but by August, there were over 200,000 waiting in Hanoi and Haiphong to be evacuated; the migration helped to strengthen Diem's political base of support. Before the partition, the majority of Vietnam's Catholic population lived in the north. After the borders were sealed, this majority was now under Diem's rule. The CIA's Edward Lansdale, who had been posted to help Diem strengthen his rule, led a propaganda campaign to encourage as many refugees to move south as possible. Diem also used slogans such as "Christ has gone south" and "the Virgin Mary had departed from the North", alleging anti-Catholic persecution under Ho Chí Minh. Over 60% of northern Catholics moved to Diem's South Vietnam, providing him with a source of loyal support (Borthwick, 1998).

The French argued against this stating that "Diem was not only incapable but mad". In October, 1955 the South Vietnamese people were asked to choose between Bo Dai, the former emperor of Vietnam, and Diem for the leadership of South Vietnam. US Colonel Edward Lansdale suggested that Diem should provide two ballot papers, red for Diem and green for Bao Dai. He pinned his hopes on the Vietnamese belief - red signified good luck while green indicated misfortune, and planned for this to bias the result in his favour (Dennett, 2008:510).

The elections were held, with Diem's brother and confidant Ngô Đình Nhu, the leader of the family's Can Lao Party, which supplied Diem's electoral base, organising and supervising the elections (Karnow 1997:223-24; Langguth 2000:99). Campaigning for Bao Đai was prohibited, and Đai supporters were attacked by Nhu's workers. Diem recorded 98.2 percent of the vote—an implausibly high result that could have only been obtained through fraud. The total announced number of votes for a republic exceeded the number of registered voters by over 380,000—further evidence that the referendum was heavily rigged. For example, only 450,000 voters were registered in Saigon, but 605,025 were said to have voted for a republic (Karnow 1997:223-24; Jacobs 2006:95). Three days later, Diem proclaimed the formation of the Republic of Vietnam, naming himself President. Under the 1954 Geneva Accords, Vietnam was to undergo elections in 1956 to reunify the country. Diem, noting that South Vietnam was not a party to the convention, canceled these (Gettleman 1966:203).
Term of the Geneva Accords:
"... no military bases under the control of a foreign state were to be established in either zone and neither zone was permitted to be part of any military alliance."

Hoepper, B. 1996 Inquiry 2. Jacaranda. P.100
How did the U.S. avoid breaching the Geneva Accords and international condemnation?
On May 8, 1963, Buddhists assembled in Hue to celebrate the 2527th birthday of the Buddha. However, Diem's brother Ngo Dinh Thuc established a ban on flying the Buddhist flag.

Attempts were made by police to disperse the crowds by opening fire on them on the orders of the Diem regime. Estimates ranged from seven to nine deaths, with 15 injured in their attempts to flee from police.

The Buddhists were furious and staged demonstrations against the oppression of the Diem regime. One of these methods was self-immolation (suicide by setting yourself on-fire). The government responded by arresting thousands of monks; many never heard of again. One member of the South Vietnamese government responded to the self-immolation by stating in a newspaper report: "Let them burn and we shall clap our hands" (Spartacus History). Others offered to supply the petrol to the monks. Diem's sister-in-law referred to the self-immolation as "barbacues" (Dennett et al. 2008:510).

The Buddhist clergy published a manifesto that called for:
The right to display the Buddhist flag
Equal status with Catholics
An end to the arrests of Buddhists
The freedom for Buddhist clerics to preach their religion
Compensation for the Hue massacre victims and punishment for those responsible
(Dennett et al 2008:510)
An eyewitness later commented:
"As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, his outward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him" (Cited in Dennett et al. 2008)
Go back through these 'zooms', consult the notes/responses to questions in this section and evaluate to what extent the US took the right option... answering the question above in a paragraph or two.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
My Lai Massacre: March 16, 1968
SECTION 5: President John F Kennedy's commitment to the War
Key Question: How committed to South Vietnam and the Vietnam War was JFK?
Learning Intention:
K: Form an opinion on whether JFK wanted to increase or decrease involvement in Vietnam
U: Differing sides of the debate over JFK's commitment to South Vietnam and the War
S: ANALYSE both sides of the debate over JFK's commitment and EVALUATE which side is stronger arguing your position based on the evidence. EXTENSION: Make reference to implicit patterns of information
Success Criteria
Section 6: Escalation under LBJ
KEY QUESTION: What caused LBJ to escalate the war in Vietnam? And, was it justified?
K: who LBJ was and his role in escalating the war in Vietnam.
U: the cause of the escalation and skepticism behind it.
S: ANALYSE historical evidence to arrive at a conclusion
Learning intention:
Success criteria/Learning outcomes:
Create a CAUSE and EFFECT chart to
accurately portray the events leading up to the escalation
(Tonkin Gulf Incident)
Come to an informed conclusion on the legitimacy of the 'Tonkin Gulf Resolution' and the escalation of war
in Vietnam in a well-fashioned TEEC paragraph (based on evidence -referencing evidence where possible)
... the other method employed by the US was
'Search and Destroy'
1) while you watch: List the reasons mentioned in the following clip for employing this method and then add to your glossary. 2) afterwards: SWOT
Tonkin Gulf Resolution and escalation of war in Vietnam under LBJ
Section 7: Strategies of warfare employed
KEY QUESTIONS: How was war waged in Vietnam?
Learning Intention:
K: strategies employed by both sides in the Vietnam/American War
U: the implications of these methods and evaluate whether they were justifiably humane and ecological
S: ANALYSE primary and secondary evidence to arrive at an insightful conclusion in an extended piece of writing
Learning Outcomes/Success Criteria:
be able to present an argument either for or against an emotionally charged historical issue.
1. AS YOU WATCH: list US claims presented here in comparison to the reality:

1) Complete a Y-Chart analysis of NAPALM according to this representation of it here
2) Explain how the the US military is represented by the film maker in this clip

Looks like
Smells like
feels like
You are successful in this activity if you have decided how well
'social protest can bring about the end of a war'.
By the end of this section you will,
What can we learn by simply analysing this map?
By the end of this section you will,
Source: Dennett, B. et al. 2008 Key Issues in Modern History. Oxford University Press. Australia. p.499
Memorandum by Joint Chiefs of Staff for the US Secretary for the US Secretary of Defence, 12 March 1954. in Hoepper, B et al. 1996 'Inquiry 2' Jacaranda, Australia. p. 96
By the end of this section you will,
You have,
By the end of this section,
By the end of this section students will,
...would you say it is a war zone? If so, why?
What other information would you like to know?
The 'Vietnam War', or 'American War' to the Vietnamese, was the first war in history to be televised and brought into the lounge rooms of millions of people worldwide. For the first time, the graphic nature of war was seen by the general public and this prompted a lot of social unrest and dissatisfaction with U.S. government decision-making ... Australia followed behind. the public often felt betrayed by their political leaders as what was being said in terms of 'winning the war' and 'how the war was being fought', often didn't equate to that which the public was seeing nightly on the television.
1. What can wwe learn from thhis source?
2. What do you think is the motive and objective?
3. Who is the target audience? How do you know?
1. President Nixon came to office in 1968 promising to end the War. But what was his proposal in 1970?
2. What does he state here are his motives for this?
3. What is the link between Nixon's motives and actions and the events at Kent State University in 1970?
Responding to primary evidence:
What can we learn about US foreign policy from this primary quote, i.e. what is the US's fear according to President Eisenhower? And, what are the motives of the US as a result of thus fear?
DEFINITIONS: What are the key terms needed for this section?
Let's begin this section by looking at two historical sources of evidence...
But how does the US justify this standpoint? Use evidence from the source to support your response.
fill in details on the template provided to profile the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem as you travel through this section. Link to document below:
Responding to primary evidence...
SOURCE: Dennett, B. 2008 Key Features in Modern History. Oxford University Press. pp.504-05
1. What were the PLAF and the NLF?
2. What advantages did the NLF have over Diem's government in its bid to win the support of the peasants?
1. What was the Viet Cong? What was its relationship to the NLF?
2. How did US military involvement increase over time?
3. How did JFK's earlier approach change under his successor LBJ?
1. How did the Trail start?
2. How did it become the 'centre piece of the winning North Vietnamese strategy? List the reasons
3. What travel/supply time improvements did the Trail provide by the end of the War?
4. What were the conditions of the trail like?
5. What was the effect of increased traffic down the trail? And, how did the villagers respond?
1. What is happening here on the trail?
2. Why might the North Vietnamese choose to do this?
3. What does this say about the character of the North Vietnamese?
Form an opinion on whether JFK wanted to increase or decrease involvement in Vietnam considering both sides of the debate.

In 1960, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was elected President of the US at a time of considerable Cold War tensions. (Dennett et al 2008).
In Review:
1.What does Robert Dallek's biography tell us about Johnson's attitude to Vietnam?
2. Why could US policy in 1965 be referred to as 'carrot and stick'?
3. What were the peace terms offered by Hanoi in 1965?
... but how did LBJ justify increased US escalation of the war in Vietnam?
(images taken from Dennet 2008:512-13)
Writing Opportunity:
What caused LBJ to escalate war in Vietnam? And, was it justified?
1. In your groups, from your cause and effect chart notes,
number significant information in the order you will use it in upcoming paragraph writing
note any problems with the information presented. (QSA Criterion 1)

2. Now in your group, write a TEEC paragraph addressing the focus question above using primary and secondary evidence in support of the conclusions you draw. (QSA Criteria 2 & 3)

3. Afterward, swap paragraphs with another group and feedback according to relevant descriptors in QSA criteria 1, 2 & 3.

By looking at this map, how would you assess the US's intervention by 1965?
Considering the US's circumstances and their foreign policy, what would you advise LBJ to do in response to these requests from the Hanoi? And, why?
The Individual in history:
Source 4: Further secondary evidence from historian Bruce Dennet's (2008:512)
Source 1: Primary report on the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, published by the Miller Centre.

Source 2: Secondary historian Bruce Dennet's (2008:512) account
Source 3: a collection of primary evidence including phone conversations between President Johnson and Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara.
"You smell that? Do you smell that? Napalm, son. Nothing else in the world smells like that. I love the smell of napalm in the morning. You know, one time we had a hill bombed, for twelve hours. When it was all over I walked up. We didn't find one of 'em, not one stinkin' dink body. The smell, you know that gasoline smell, the whole hill. Smelled like - victory"
Source: Clip from the film 'Apocalypse now' (1979)
Analysing secondary evidence:
Source 5: Former Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara reflects on the events in the film 'Fog of War' (2003)
Source 6: Clip from the film 'War Made Easy: How Presidents & Pundits Keep Spinning us Death (2007)
Consider the concepts of 'historical continuity' and 'perspective' here
Consider the historical concept 'interests' here. And, how interests may change over time
The war in Vietnam pitted the United States, the richest and most technologically advanced country in the world, against the Vietnamese, who were mainly peasants. Each side used tactics which suited its strengths.
The National Liberation Front (NLF) and the North Vietnamese army had a great deal of support among the peasants of South Vietnam and they were experts in jungle warfare. The United States had devasting firepower and they used it in a devasting manner. It was difficult for the American to distinguish between guerillas and civilians and so their firepower was often used indiscrimminatly against the population of rural South Vietnam.

By June 1965, huge B-52 bombers with standard loads of fifty-one 750-pound bombs of high explosive were flattening whole areas of the countryside in one of the heaviest bombardments in the history of warfare. (Hoepper, B. eta al 1996:111)
Source:an area of South Vietnamese countryside after bombing
1. the photo shows bomb craters in wet weather. What effects might so many water-filled craters have on the environment and the people of the country?
2. What long-term effects might such bombing have on a drier hillside?
3. What does the photo suggest about the scale and intensity of US bombing of Vietnam?
4. What further evidence would you want to be more certain about your answer to Question 3?
Analysing primary evidence:
In 1975, the Stockholme International Peace Research Institute estimated that approximately 21 million shells were expended in Indochina, leaving almost the smae number of permanent craters and displacing roughly one-billion cubic mentres of soil.
United States planes sprayed herbicides on many of the forests of South Vietnam in order to deprive the guerillas of the protection of the jungle cover. They also sprayed rice crops in some areas to deprive the guerillas of food. Ordinary forest trees, if sprayed with herbicides on several occasions, will die completely. Mangroves will die when sprayed only once. The Stockholme International Peace Research Institute estimated that 5 percent of the total forest lands of South Vietnam were totally destroyed, resulting in the loss of about 14 percent of the saleable timber. About one-third of South Vietnam's mangrove forests were also destroyed. It is clear that the US bombing did not just affect South Vietnam in terms of it's human toll, but it also in terms of its ecology and economy.

The US also forces also used a wide range of anti-personnel weapons. One of these was a substance known as napalm...
(Hoepper, B. eta al 1996:112)
Source: A description of napalm
Source: The effects of napalm on a young Vietnamese boy caught in a napalm attack
Cluster bomb units
Analysing primary and secondary evidence
1. What are some of the military advantages of using napalm?
2. How might civilians, like the little boy in the photo, have been caught up in napalm attacks?
3. What affects does the napalm appear to have had on the little boy?
4. Should napalm be outlawed as a weapon of war?
In the spring of 1966 a freelance writer named freelance writer Frank Harvey was invited by Maj. George Weiss, PIO officer for the 7th Air Force in Saigon, to Vietnam to do a “definitive” study of the conduct of the air war. Because of his record as a military specialist (Harvey has written some eighty articles on military subjects in the past eighteen years, all of them laudatory, some of them adulatory), Weiss argued that Harvey was “obligated” to go.
Frank Harvey, in his book 'Air War: Vietnam' (acclaimed by Robert Crichton in January 1968 edition of New York Review of Books as "the most complete record so far of what our airmen are actually doing to the people of Vietnam"), described other anti-personnel weapons used by the US. One of these was known as the cluster bomb unit.
analysing primary sources:
1. According to the report, how does CBU work?
2. Harvey used the description 'lawnmower'. Does that seem appropriate as a description of the effects of a CBU? Explain.
3. In what way does a CBU seem indiscriminate in its effects?
4. Why would the US air-force use anti-personnel weapons like CBUs instead of the conventional high explosive bombs?
5. To what extent might the information in this report be a reliable description of the US airforce's use of CBU in Vietnam?
A military journal published in 1966 had this to say about the psychological effects of anti-personnel weapons.
analysing primary evidence
Source: the psychological effects of antipersonnel weapons
1. From a military standpoint, why is it better to maim people rather than kill them?
2. What psychological effects do you think the weapons would have on the people being bombed?
3. How might people in the US have reacted to the use of such weapons? Could there have been ambivalence about using these weapons? Explain.
4. How would you describe the 'tone' of the Aviation Week extract? How does the author seem to feel about the existence and use of such weapons?
2. AFTER YOU WATCH: Attitudinal Scale Activity: The two extreme statements are:

In warfare, it is right to use any weapon against the enemy
In warfare, certain types of weapons should be banned.
Many Americans (and Australians) who had initially supported the war began to turn against it because of its horrific effects on the people and the countryside of Vietnam. In fact, many people believed that US policies in South Vietnam were specifically designed to destroy the rural society of that country so that the NLF would be deprived of a social base of support. During the war, hundreds of thousands of refugees were driven from their villages and were obliged to live in refugee camps or in the cities. In these ways they were separated from the guerillas.
Such tactics raise an awkward question for people living in a democratic society. Does even the most worthy goal justify the destruction of people and nature on such a massive scale? This is a question people asked about the the Allied terror-bombing of German cities like Dresden during World War II, and the dropping of the atomic bomb on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. During WWII, those actions were given wide-spread support. However, during the Vietnam War, many people in countries like the US and Australia thought that using such tactics against a peasant society like Vietnam was deplorable.
When news broke out in 1969 that US troops had massacred humdreds of civilians at the South Vietnamese village of My Lai, the anti-war movement saw this as a logical outcome of official US policy.
Source - Hoepper et al 1996 'Inquiry 2'. Jacaranda. pp.115-116.
Further Viewing - PBS's 2010 film: 'My Lai'
Full transcript