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Geological Evolution Notes

Time Scale, Plate Tectonics
by

Teika Clavell

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Geological Evolution Notes

From the beginning of the known Earth time scale and how we know.
Geological Evolution Notes
Geological Time Scale
A geological time scale is a timeline that organizes major events in Earth's history. The time scale is divided into eons, eras, periods, and epochs.
Units of Time
Precambrian Era
Paleozoic Era
Began with the early invertebrates, such as trilobites and brachiopods
Mesozoic Era
Reptiles were dominate; dinosaurs

Birds and other small mammals developed

Flowering plants developed

The end; marked by extinction of the of the dinosaurs
Cenozoic Era
There was an influx of animals; new mammals developed while others became extinct
There was an increase in life form diversity because of this influx
Plants were more prevalent with flowering plants becoming the most common
Humans came into existence
Eras
Periods
The shortest division of time and marks the beginning of a new period.
Epochs
Pleistocene Epoch marked the end of the ice age
A block of time during which unique rock layers were laid down.
Triassic Period is marked by three ("tri") distinct layers of rock; red, chalk, then black shales.
Triassic Period
A division of time marked by mass extinctions
Animals continued to develop; vertebrae fish, then arachnids and insects developed. After came the development of amphibians.
Plants included mosses, ferns, then cone-bearing plants.
The end of the era: reptiles became the dominate species, seed plants were in existence, and an extinction of most marine invertebrates and amphibians.
Paleozoic Era
Precambrian Era
First Era in Earth's history. It began with the creation of Earth around 4.6 billion years ago.
Five major events occurred in this era
1. formation of the sun and light
2. creation of the Earth
3. creation of the atmosphere through volcanic out-gassing
4. creation of the oceans
5. creation of life (started with bacteria and simple algae then to simple organisms such as jelly fish and sea worms)
There are not many fossils due to the nature of the organisms bodies (soft)
Cenozoic Era
What do you notice about the characteristics of life as we traveled through the Eras of Earth's History?
How do we know all of this information?
The Theory of Plate Tectonics states that Earth's outer layer is made up of plates, which have moved throughout Earth's history.
The theory explains the how and why behind mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes, as well as how, long ago, similar animals could have lived at the same time on what are now widely separated continents.

Did you see the change?
When the plates shift, this is called continental drift, or
the movement of Earth's Continents relative to each other.
Eons
The longest unit
of geologic time
Did you know there are
only 4 Eons in Earth's History
Continental Boundaries
The types of boundaries determines how tectonic plates move
Convergent Boundary
Convergent plate boundaries are locations where tectonic plates are moving towards one another.
The plate collisions that occur in these areas can produce earthquakes, volcanic activity and crustal deformation.
Divergent Boundary
Divergent boundaries are locations where tectonic plates are moving away from each other (left to right).This occurs above rising convection currents. The rising current pushes up on the bottom of the lithosphere, lifting it and flowing laterally beneath it.
Transform Boundary
Transform Plate Boundaries are locations where two plates slide past one another.
The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundary is known as a transform fault.
Convection Currents
Convection currents are caused by the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling, sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating the cycle over and over.
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