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History 7A Timeline

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Allen Wang

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of History 7A Timeline

History 7A Timeline of Events
Timeline
1492-1500:
Columbus Voyage
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Spain
14th century:
Black Death
1500-1502:
Crown authorized 12 new expeditions
1453:
Ottoman Empire
Defeat of Byzantine
Cutting off trade routes to the East
--> European sea exploration to the west
1517ish:
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
Protested against the Roman Catholic Church
Used the power of
printing press
1516:
Sir Thomas More:
"Utopia"
1520ish:
Queen Mary of England --> "BLOODY MARY"
because of her persecution of the Protestants...
(Return of Roman Catholicism)
1558ish:
1558: Queen Mary's death
Her younger half-sister + successor:
ELIZABETH 1 (aka the Virgin Queen)
reversed Queen Mary's re-establishment of Roman Catholicism -->
established the English Protestant Church
1588:
Spanish Armada
Spanish purpose: to overthrow Queen Elizabeth's protestant England
English WON
Black Legend
1607:
Establishment of
Jamestown, Virginia
by Virginia Company of London
1300
1400
1500
1600
Last half of 16th century: surplus of
masterless man
Overpopulation in England
Shipping masterless man to the colonies as manpower
Enclosures
and growing inequality
1622:
1/4 of English killed by
Powhatan
see the wars
Anglo-Powhatan Wars (Virginia)
(3 Wars)
1610
1646
1618:
TOBACCO
boom
Rise of
plantation economy
Tobacco at the expense of subsistence
Social consequences
Headright System
as solution to labor problem
1622:
English settled on the Powhatan's territory,
Tidewater
Stole supplies of corn and food from the Natives for survival
Wanted the natives to work for them
1622:
Virginia --> royal government
Government by assembly
Stabilizing society:
Falling tobacco prices
Declining death rates
Stabilizing sex ratios
1640s:
After Virginia stabilizes
Return of English aristocrats --> change power structure
Sir William Berkeley
(colonial governor of Virginia)
1660s, 1670s:
Time to STOP tobacco farming
Most land in Tidewater = tobacco farms (not good to keep expanding)
Powhatan Confederacy's power decreasing
Sir William Berkeley: let's make peace
1676:
Bacon's Rebellion (in Virginia)
Bacon rebelling against
Berkeley's conservative and limiting policies
(peaceful makings with the natives)
Bacon wanted right and power from the tobacco lands
Wanted his own Indian policy
Special privilege to the governors
High taxes, low tobacco prices
1690:
First Africans shipped to Virginia
After Bacon's rebellion --> greater demand for African slaves
1650s:
Hardening
racial categories
Poll Tax
Taxed
African women
but not English women
Taxed according to the number of workers you have
1629:
Charter granted to
Massachusetts Bay Colony
John Winthrop
(rich Puritan, one of the founders of the MA Bay Colony)
Cause:
Jame's son Charles
appointed bishops and officials in church who can persecute you
England became unsafe for the Puritans
1691:
Province of Massachusetts Bay
1620:
The
Pilgrims
formed the
Plymouth Colony
1639-1642:
Migration to Massachusetts Bay Colony STOPPED
--> cuz of
English Civil War
--> Puritans stayed and fought
--> Many even went back to England to fight
1642: people stopped coming to MA (lack of $$)
1700
African slaves replaced indentured servants as primary labor

Fire in 1666 --> England required men to rebuild --> less English servants available --> African slaves = cheap alternatives (although landowners still preferred English servants due to language, culture, and ...similarities)
1650
1700
1634-1638:
Pequot War/Massacre (in Connecticut) 1637
Puritans putting a lot of pressure on the Pequot to make
wampum

Causes:
(Struggle for
contro
l)
English: Efforts to control
fur + wampum
trade access
Pequot: political and economical dominance
Murders of English traders committed by the Pequots

Too few beaver and too much demand for fur
But a lot of wampum (inflation) --> DONE with wampum

1663:
John Eliot
Churches aiming to
convert the Indians
Translating and published bible in MA language
Taught Indians English instead since MA language = spoken only in a few areas
South Carolina settlement
Rice
cultivation
Africans
teaching English the
water draining system
Required a lot of labor (Africans increase)
1675-1676:
King Philip's War
Border settlements of MA
Southern New England
Wampanoag warriors
raid the borders of MA and killed a bunch of English settlers
King Philip formed allies with the
Mohawks

Causes:
Dependent on English goods, food, and weapons
Bargaining powers diminished as the fur trade dried up
Lands were sold, and King Philip and other leaders were forced by the colonists to recognize English sovereignty.
Rather than accommodate further, some of the Indians took up arms.
Animals: fences were gone, trespassing territorie
(Creatures of Empire)
Indians persecuted for killing feral animals
Rules had Indians to make fences → NOT FAIR
→ Colonists’ livestock who broke into Indian territory!


Results:
large numbers of Indians sold
ended the Native American presence in the region
1634:
Maryland
colony established
Charles I
granted it
Refuge for
English Catholic
Didn't have constituency (authority granted to a single person)
Anglo-Dutch Wars
1652
1670
Dutch = trade-based in America
Hate the Spanish, just like the English
1648: Dutch won independence from Spain

Now that the Spain is "defeated," Dutch and the English looked to each other as competitors
--> went to war
English won, English dominance
New Amsterdam --> New York
1682:
William Penn
Pennsylvania
colony formed
1688-1689:
The Glorious Revolution
deposition of
James II
and the accession of
William III and Mary II
to the English throne
Established the supremacy of British parliament over monarch

Causes:
Charles
favoring
Roman Catholicism
and wanting to restore an absolute monarchy
Favored alliances with Catholic powers
Unresponsive to parliament

Significance and Results
William & Mary accepted the invitation of the
Parliament
to rule as joint sovereigns --> "King-in-Parliament"
Declaration of Rights
Declaration of Independence (1688)
Bill of Rights (1689)
Barred any future Catholic succession to the throne.
The royal power to suspend and dispense with law was abolished
Crown was
forbidden to levy taxation
or maintain a standing army in peacetime
without parliamentary consent
.
Practical power shifted from the monarch to Parliament.
1739:
Stono's Rebellion
Stono River, South Carolina
Largest slave uprising prior the American Revolution
20 slaves secretly met up at Stono River to escape
Caught and engaged in fight with slave owners

Results:
Stricter slave codes
NO:
Assemble
Make own $$
Learn to read
Grow own food
1666:
Great Fire of London
Needed English men to rebuild
Declining availability of English servant (higher price)
Rising demand for African slaves (cheaper) in VIRGINIA
1668:
Slavery became legal in New York
First Great Awakening
1730s
1743
George Whitefield
Itinerant preacher
English Anglican
Did collect $$
Dr. Squintum
Characteristics:
Led by
evangelical Protestant ministers
Sharp increase in
religious interest and enthusiasm
Profound sense of
conviction and redemption
on the part of those affected
Increase in
evangelical church membership
Formation of
new religious movements and denominations
1733:
Molasses Act of 1733
Passed by the British parliament
Prohibitive duties
on
sugar, rum, and molasses
imported from
non-British
West Indian islands to the North American colonies (as well as French sugar)
Was never seriously enforced
The Seven Years War (French and Indian War)
France
:
St. Lawrence Valley
Ohio Valley
1763: expelled from Canada, defeated
vs.
English
:
Suffered defeats at first
1757:
British Prime Minister William Pitt
recognized the potential for imperial expansion, so reimbursed the war
Worked with colonies (recruited American soldiers from Boston, although they sucked)
1756
1763
WON
Results & Significance
Ended with the
treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris
(Feb 1763)
France lost:
Upper Canada, Spanish Florida: to the British
Louisiana: to Spain

French bitterness over loss -->
intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots

England: HUGE
NATIONAL DEBT
(133 million pounds)
Cause: British need to expand trading (need to go into Ohio Valley)
1763:
Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac
= Ottawa chief (he enlisted a bunch of Native Americans to fight against the British)
Great Lakes

Cause:
Do not want land-thristy British to continue to take away their native lands
Native Americans found the British to be far less conciliatory than the French
English abolished the original French-giving-gifts thing
1763:
Proclamation Line of 1763:
Difficulties in governing such
huge land territories
(after French defeat in The Seven Wars)
Cannot travel west of the
Appalachian Mountains (= Native American territory) unless native rights to the land had first been obtained by purchase or treaty
Cherokees
LOVED THIS

Purpose:
Organize
North American empire
Stabalize relations with Native North Americans
through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier (a conciliatory gesture toward the Native Americans)
War created a sense of
colonial prosperity
England buying stuff from American colonies
Americans were land-owners
1764:
The Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act)
Purpose: to
raise $$
for national debt
LOWERED
THE TAX
Combined lower tax + stricter law enforcement = people actually paying taxes
Reformed the
customs service
:
Harder to buy smuggled French sugar
Didn't work very well --> alternative =
The Stamp Act of 1765
1765:
The Stamp Act of 1765
an "
internal
" tax (small)
required
printed materials
to be stamped
legal documents
marriage papers
Direct tax
Imposed by
British Parliament
Finance costs of army
Got repealed (see below)


The Stampe Act Congress
What's our relationship with the Parliament?
BOYCOTTS
Talk about riots in Boston
Convened in New York...
petition Parliament and King George III to repeal the tax (and they did, repealed the Stamp Act)

Quartering Act
outlining the locations and conditions in which British soldiers are to
find room and board
in the American colonies.
Colonies have to house the British soldiers no matter what
New York colonial assembly hated providing
quarters
for the soldiers without being asked first
--> some were quartered in public spaces --> Boston Common --> street brawls --> Boston Massacre
Consequences and Colonial Response
British Parliament clearly trying to
raise revenue
instead of
regulating commerce
Colonists pissed about this
STRONGER type of
colonial resistance
ensued

"NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!"
As a conciliatory gesture toward the Native Americans, Parliament issued the Proclamation of 1763 , forbidding American colonists to settle on Native American territory unless native rights to the land had first been obtained by purchase or treaty.
1770:
Boston Massacre
5 colonists shot by British redcoats
Boston Customs House
Jeering Bostonians threw stones etc at British soliders --> enraged and fired at the Bostonians

Sparked colonists' desire for independence
1773:
Boston Tea Party
Tea Act
Granting the financially troubled
British East India Company
(bailout measure, too big to fail) a
trade monopoly on the tea
exported to the American colonies.
Tea price of BEIC <
smuggled Dutch
tea
TAX ISN'T RAISED, BUT PRICE WENT DOWN (JUST LIKE SUGAR ACT)

Colonies:
BOYCOTT
Thomas Hutchinson
: insisted on upholding this law --> ordered 3 ships with tea to arrive in
Boston harbor
--> 60 men disguised as Native Americans
dumped all the tea
1774:
Intolerable Acts / Coercive Acts
Boston Port Act:
Shut down
Boston Harbor until the British East India Company had been
fully reimbursed
for the tea destroyed
Massachusetts Government Act:
no town a meetings
town council appointed
Administration of Justice Act:
jury moved to London, trial by jury in Britain

Results
Americans throughout the colonies sent food and supplies to Boston via land to prevent death from hunger and cold

First Continental Congress

Gathered in Philadelphia
Once again
petitioned
Parliament, King George III, and the British people to repeal the acts and restore friendly relations.
For additional motivation, they also decided to
institute a boycott
, or ban, of all British goods in the colonies.
1775:
Lexington, Concord
British force tried to seize colonial
arsenal
in Concord, MA
Colonists of Lexington and Concord intercepted and attacked
Forced British force back to Boston
King George III "
waging war against us
" and disregard for American people

Battle of Bunker Hill (read with The Siege of Boston)
early in the Revolutionary War
Colonial militiamen learned that the British were sending troops to occupy hills around Boston --> under William Prescott's lead the militiamen fortified Breed's Hill
The
British defeated the Americans
at the Battle of Bunker Hill in Massachusetts.
Significance: Despite their loss, the inexperienced colonial forces inflicted significant casualties against the enemy, and the battle provided them with an important
confidence boost
. (significant morale-builder for the inexperienced Americans, convincing them that patriotic dedication could overcome superior British military might.)

Second Continental Congress
Final attempt for peaceful reconciliation, the
Olive Branch Petition
--> colonies professed love for King George III, but king rejected and formally declared the colonies were in a
state of rebellion
1776:
Declaration of Independence
Second Continental Congress
appointed
George Washington
as commander
Financed army --> to improve undisciplined militias into the professional Continental Army
As colonies began to win more and more --> many starting to advocate for total independence instead of full rights within the British Empire
Thomas Jefferson

drafted the Declaration of Independence

1775-1776:
Seige of Boston

Colonial militia besieging British forces inside Boston --> eventully forcing them to
withdraw by sea
Limited British ability to
resupply naval operations
Although British gained control of the Bunker and Breed's Hill, they suffered a lot of losses, preventing them from breaking the colonial siege
Washington appointed
Henry Knox
, who brought many cannons to the Boston area, threatening the British naval supply lifeline
Departed to
Nova Scotia
Results:
Colonies
claimed Charlestown and Boston
Ended military activities in New England colonies
American Revolutionary War (1775-1783)
1775:
Invasion of Canada
First major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army
Objectives:
To gain military control of the British Province of Quebec
Convince French-speaking Canadians to join the 13 Colonies
to fight against British
Ended as disaster for the Americans
Received no support from the French though
1778:
French Alliance
Ratified by Congress
Defensive alliance to aid France should England attack
Neither France nor the colonies would make peace with England until the independence of the colonies was recognized
1779:
United States Bill of Rights
R
1777 (created)
Articles of Confederation
A league of mutual defense
Equality among states
No executive branch
Confederacy to be called "United States of America"
1787:
U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution signed

Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Establishment of
Northwest Territory
, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
French assistance helped colonies...British force surrendered at Yorktown
Peace of Paris 1783
1783
"United States" recognized

Peace of Paris
ending the American Revolution
recognized the independence of the United States
1785
Land Ordinance of 1785
Goal:
raise money
through the
sales of land
in the largely unmapped
territory west
of the original states acquired after the end of the Revolutionary War in the 1783 Treaty of Paris -->
townships
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress
did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation
of the inhabitants of the United States.
1787
The Judiciary Act of 1787
(James Madison)
Goal:
detailed
organization of a
federal judiciary
that the Constitution had sketched only in general terms.
Three-part judiciary:
1. The
Supreme Court
: Cheif Justice + 5 associate justices
2. United States circuit courts: principal trial courts in the federal system
Principal authors: Senators
Oliver Ellsworth
of CN &
William Paterson
of NJ
Results:
Guaranteed the
right to trial to district where the defendant lived
Significance:
Compromise between those who wanted the federal courts to exercise full jurisdiction allowed under the Constitution and those who opposed any lower federal courts or proposed restricting them to admiralty jurisdiction
Acknowledged the
legitimacy of the state courts
and
protected individual rights

Three-Fifths Compromise of 1787
3/5 of slave population counts towards the total population
Impact: gave Southern states more political clout, more representationin Congress

Virginia Plan
James Madison
1790
First Indian Trade and Intercourse Act
Requiring all purchases of land from Indians must be arranged through treaties negotiated by tribal leaders and federal commissioners appointed by the president

Potomac Compromise
have Washington near Virginia

Hamilton/Jefferson Debate
National debt
1800
1830
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Signed into law by
President Andrew Jackson

1838-39
Trail of Tears
Cherokee removal
1794-95
Jay Treaty of 1794
U.S.A.
and
Great Britain
Purpose:
sought to
settle outstanding issues (stabilize relations)
between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence +
increase trade
Have British relinquish military posts
Increase greater degree of commerce in British colonial islands
Results:
Proved unpopular with the American public
Accomplished the goal of maintaining peace between the two nations and preserving U.S. neutrality.
U.S. meager gains:
British surrender of the northwestern posts (already agreed to in 1783)
Commercial treaty with Great Britain that granted the United States “most favored nation” status, but seriously restricted U.S. commercial access to the British West Indies.
1798

Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Deliberate and direct response to the
Quasi-War with French
(anti-French sentiment) (also French started to dislike cuz of the Jay Treaty)
Signed by President
John Adams


1.
Enemy Alien Act
: gave president the right to deport & imprison people who were considered aliens considered “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States”

2.
French Alien Act
: required a longer of time for immigrants to be nationalized (residency requirement for American citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years)

3.
Sedition Act
: restricted speech critical of the government
Many newspaper editors were jailed/prosecuted for violating this act

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolution: Doctrine of Nullification 1798-1799
Effort to attack the power of the U.S. under the Constitution to create such a set of laws and enforcing them across the U.S. (the Alien and Sedition Acts used as a political tool for the federalist administration)
Madison and Jefferson

Notion:
Clear that the Alien and Sedition Acts were extending the power of the U.S. government and Congress beyond what the Congress had granted them
Violating amendment

Purpose:
Allows a state to
invalidate for its own territory any federal law deemed unconstitutional
by that state
States, of their own authorities, reject the extended power of the federal government, to nullify national laws
NOT IN MY STATE


Lyon-Griswold Brawl in Congress (1798)
• Lyon: huge vitriol on the government (violating A&S Act)

rise of political factions in the House
, though formal political parties had yet to be formed in the young republic.

Opposing party no longer a party that you would want to get a compromise → Annihilation
• Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Republicans
• View each other as traitors
• Treasons
• Federalists: Idea of systematic organization = violation
• Jeffersonian: tyranny all over again
o The Federalists are allying with Britain wth? Bringing back U.S. to the state before the American Revolution
• Get rid of each other

1800
Presidential Election of 1800
Federalist:
John Adams
vs
Democratic Republican:
Thomas Jefferson
(won)
Tie between
Aaron Burr
and
Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton (a prominent Federalist) advised Federalists to choose Jefferson
Problems with the electoral system:
The framers of the Constitution had not anticipated such a
tie
nor had they considered the possibility of the election of a
President or Vice President from opposing factions
- which had been the case in the 1796 election.
In 1804, the passage of the 12th Amendment corrected these problems by providing for separate Electoral College votes for President and Vice President.
Significance:
first national party politics
& the
tie between Jefferson and Burr
1804
Burr-Hamilton Duel
Burr mortally shot and wounded Hamilton
1803
Louisiana Purchase
Bought the Louisiana territory (HUGE) from
French
government
U.S. Reasons for purchasing:
Not very expensive
Jeffersonians favored
westward expansion
French Reasons for selling:
Haitian Revolution
Napoleon
interest in dominating
Caribbean islands
(wanted to secure Louisiana and make it a supply/food source to support Caribbean colonial ventures
Failed to suppress
Haitian Revolution
Didn't want Louisiana anymore (no point)
Barbary Wars (1801-1805, 1815-1816)
The Barbary States
: were a collection of North African states, many of which practiced state-supported piracy in order to exact tribute from weaker Atlantic powers.
Morocco was an independent kingdom,
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli owed a loose allegiance to the Ottoman Empire.

The United States fought two separate wars with Tripoli (1801–1805) and Algiers (1815–1816), although at other times it preferred to pay tribute to obtain the release of captives held in the Barbary States.
However, once the United States declared independence, British diplomats were quick to inform the Barbary States that U.S. ships were open to attack.
U.S. unable to raise a good navy
OK, pay tributes
(which Jefferson didn't like, cuz he wanted free trade)

Siginificance: first overseas war fought after American Independence
1807
Embargo Act of 1807
Signed into law by
President Thomas Jefferson
No Americans can trade overseas
It
forbade all international trade to and from American ports
, and Jefferson hoped that Britain and France would be persuaded of the value and the rights of a neutral commerce.
Didn't work at all
Severaly impacted New England states (ships, ports unused...)
1809: rescinded

1808
International Slave Trade Prohibited
by Thomas Jefferson
1814
Hartford Convention of 1814
New England Federalists met to discuss grievance concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government’s increasing power
Outcries among Federalists for New England secession
Discussed grievances with the Louisiana Purchase & Embargo of 1807
1813-14
Creek War
Red Stick Rebellion
Root Causes:
White settlement
--> Upper Creeks sought to push white settlers away and regain territorial control
Originally conflict between Upper Creeks and Lower Creeks
Andrew Jackson thought the Upper Creeks were attacking the white settlers whom Lower Creeks were working with though --> reason for attack
1811
New Madrid Earthquake
2 months 0.0
Natural events can shape history as much as humans do
1812
War of 1812
British backing up Native Americans
1791
Bill of Rights
Ratified
Full transcript