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World History - The Scientific Revolution
Transcript of World History - The Scientific Revolution
& The Scientific Revolution
Law of Gravity
proposed heliocentric theory that argued Aristotle's geocentric theory
rejected by scholars and clergy
Born Christmas Day 1642
Became greatest scientist in human history
Unification of Physics and Astronomy - (http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton.html)
Newton's Three Laws - (http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html)
Newtonian Graviation (http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html)
1687 - published the Law of Universal Gravitation
supported Copernicus's theories
major contributor to astronomy
arrested by the church
What is the Scientific Revolution?
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
The end result of my study of Newton has served to convince me that with him there is no measure. He has become for me wholly other, one of the tiny handful of supreme geniuses who have shaped the categories of the human intellect, a man not finally reducible to the criteria by which we comprehend our fellow beings.
---Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (1980)
refuted, through observations, the theory of celestial spheres
Worked under Brahe
Three laws of planetary motion
Most important - planets move in elliptical orbits, not spheres
Galileo on Trial
Pre-Scientific Revolution World - governed by ideas of Aristotle (4th c. BCE) and Ptolemy (2nd c. BCE)
What is "science"?
a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of
facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the
operation of general laws
For non-scientists - it is an idea that gives us
ways to explain our world and ourselves
Forced to publicly recant (years after publication) what he knew to be true - the earth was not the center of the universe
Church knew he was correct, but had not figured out how to explain it yet
Wishing to remove from the minds of your Eminences and of every true Christian this vehement suspicion justly cast upon me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I do abjure, damn, and detest the said errors and heresies, and generally each and every other error, heresy and sect contrary to the Holy Church; and I do swear for the future that I shall never again speak or assert, orally or in writing, such things as might bring me under similar suspicion.
- Galileo (June 22, 1633)
One of the key developments in the evolution of Western society
Why does it matter?
1. A scientific community emerged whose primary goal was the expansion of knowledge
2. A modern scientific method arose that was both theoretical and experimental and refused to base its conclusions on tradition and established sources
3. Led into a period of further exploration known as The Enlightenment
What caused the Scientific Revolution?
Medieval universities provided the framework for the new science
The Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics and supporting scientific investigations
The navigational problems of sea voyages generated scientific research and new instruments
Betters ways of obtaining knowledge about the world improved scientific methods (Bacon & Descartes)
After about 1630 (the Counter-Reformation), the Catholic Church discouraged science while Protestantism tended to be "pro-science"
Development of Scientific Method
Take everything you know and generalize a finding (inductive reasoning)
"I think, therefore I am"
Accept nothing as true unless it is evident to you - no prejudgment
Start simple, then complicate (deductive reasoning)