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SHARED Miami 2015 McCauley Kavana Personal Genomics

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Raymond McCauley

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Transcript of SHARED Miami 2015 McCauley Kavana Personal Genomics

+1-650-776-4561
for your attention
Raymond McCauley
biochemistry
biophysics
electrical engineering
computer science
bioinformatics
nanotechnology
DISCLAIMER
These are my opinions and are not intended to reflect the views of any group or organization with which I may be affiliated.
Exponential Biosciences
past:
Singularity
University
Raymond McCauley
@raymondmccauley
Thank you
Raymond McCauley
Digital Biology
raymond@singularityu.org
+1-650-776-4561
+
2001
=
Industrial
Biology
The
small
future
is
industrial microbiology
yeast = tiny factories
like microbreweries
gene prospecting
supply chain disruption
Microbiomes
Bacterial Reservoir
Eat ammonia
Eliminate smell
Crowd out
tinea pedis
Keep feet healthy
Peter DiLaura, CEO
Practical Advice
Use antibiotics wisely
Eat like ancestors
Get a dog
Citizen Science
& Crowd-Sourced
Metagenomics
Microbiomes
Microbiome Roles
Digest food
Synthesize nutrients
Protect against disease
Mood, sleep, eating behavior
Partnership with Mayo Clinic, as of Oct 2014
inflammatory bowel diseases
metabolic disorders
colorectal cancer

Secret Clinical Trials, revealed Feb 2015
1. Avoid excess sugary foods
2. Good quality sleep
3. Meditation and relaxation
4. Eat fiber
5. Eat natural probiotic foods
6. Consider probiotic supplements
The Gut Microbiome,
Anxiety and Depression:
6 Steps to Take
by Peter Bongiorno, ND, LAc
November 8, 2014
Jessica
Richman,
CEO
microbiome hacking
& DIY fecal transplants
Phage
Therapy
Use viruses to kill bacteria
Specifically targeted
Alternative to wide spectrum antibiotics
Developed in Russia, new Western interest
Image credit: Bacteriophages and Biotechnology
http://www.pharmainfo.net/luckypharmacist/bacteriophages
Shaping the oral microbiota
through intimate kissing
Remco Kort, Martien Caspers, Astrid van de Graaf, Wim van Egmond, Bart Keijser and Guus Roeselers
...we investigated the effects of intimate kissing on the oral microbiota of 21 couples by self-administered questionnaires about their past kissing behavior and by the evaluation of tongue and salivary microbiota samples in a controlled kissing experiment...
"
"
brings up many questions...
One More Thing...
Your chance to try it...
Consumer access to research tool
"Recreational genomics"
Disease risk, carrier status, genealogy
DNA Sequencing
2022
2018
2022
=
=
=
Source: National Human Genome Research Institute, Exponential Biosciences
marginal cost,
market segmentation
& value-added services
1 human genome + interpretation
=
$3900

5 human genomes, raw data, in bulk
=
$3000

1 fast delivery human genome
= $5000

1 human exome
=
$400

1 point-of-care bacterial identification
= $20 - $100+

1 human "gene scan" (e.g., 23andMe)
=
$99
DNA Microarrays
Tools
2013
=
2007
=
14 Jan 2014
HiSeqX 10
$10M
20 000 genomes/year
$1000/genome, all in
NextSeq 500
$250K
1-10 genomes/day
Now
Reactive
Near Future
Medicine
Other applications
=
Predictive
2015
=
You can't buy ENIAC for a penny

But you
can
buy:
Decent Laptop, $800
An 100 hours of cloud computing, $130
Graphics workstation, $11000
Moore's Law
Decent Laptop, $800
An 100 hours of cloud computing, $130
Graphics workstation, $11000
BETTER
circa 2010
circa 2015
Today:
& Personal Genomics
advisor,
consultant,
investor
Deliver genetic medicines
Water purification
Food preservation
First FDA Approval for
Direct-to-Consumer
Genetic Testing Company
late October 2015
X
X
Biohacking
Resources
for Kids
Raymond McCauley
raymondmccauley
on Google Hangouts
or +1-650-776-4561
bit.ly/kidbiohack
+
+
Technology
Clinical
Consumer
Future
Illumina Custom OmniExpress+ BeadChip
Assays about 1,200,000 SNPs
DNA Microarrays
Tools
DNA Sequencing
qPCR
NIPT = Non-Invasive Prenatal Test
Has replaced Amniocentesis
Tests for chromosomal disorders
Finding Fetal DNA in blood: Data Problem
*
More Accurate - Less Risk - Fraction of the Cost
Non-Invasive Prenatal Tests
now 80%+ of market
Companies
Finding Cancer
with
Cell-Free DNA
partial list from Dr. Eric Topol
The End of
Mammograms
Colonoscopies
&
?
circa 2018-2020
"What kind of infection?"
Test Types
Throat swab culture
DNA probe
RADT - Optical Immunoassay
RADT - Enzyme Immunoassay
Rapid qPCR
Time

48 hours
2 hours
<1 hour
<1 hour
<1 hour
Special Equip
-
$$
$$$
-
$
$200
qPCR
with
20 minute
prep & run time
P
renatal
G
enetic
D
iagnosis
Deep Sequencing for Tumors
prognosis
tissue of origin
treatment recommendations
Dental Genomics
Predicting severe
peridontal disease
Consumer
Illumina Custom OmniExpress+ BeadChip
Assays about 1,200,000 SNPs
DNA Scan
DNA Sequence
most interesting/best known
1.2 million bases
0.04%
almost all
3.2 billion bases
100%

Covers
Disease risk, carrier status, genealogy

What do
you
want to know?
Some of your info also applies to
family...

Privacy:
to share or not to share?
Do you want to be found by long-lost relatives?
In US,
Health insurance
protected by law

(GINA)
Life insurance, long-term disability is
not
How does it work?
What do you get?
Heredity
& Genealogy
paternity testing
forensics
identification
immigration
probate
border control
"Who's Your Daddy?"
genome
blood+saliva
activity+food+sleep
microbiome
co-founder, Lee Hood,
Institute for Systems Biology
Scientific Wellness
"Sub-Clinical"
Executive Health / Concierge Medicine
Trends: Eco Foods, Food Security 3.0
Livestock Genotyping
trait prediction
breed, pedigree, parentage
identification
outbreak traceability
feed optimization
Genus PLC
and PIC, UK
BGI,
Shenzhen
quarterly check-ins + counseling
$2000/year
Product Personalization
Nutrigenomics
Courtesy Ruby Gadelrab, Invitae
Personalized & Functional Foods
Trends: DNA, Ubi-Sensors
Nutriceuticals
Lifestyle
Cosmetics
The Dark Side of Product Personalization...
Microbiomes
& Metagenomics
Peter DiLaura, CEO
Citizen Science
& Crowd-Sourced
Metagenomics
Microbiome Roles
Digest food
Synthesize nutrients
Protect against disease
Mood, sleep, eating behavior
Partnership with Mayo Clinic, as of Oct 2014
inflammatory bowel diseases
metabolic disorders
colorectal cancer

Secret Clinical Trials, revealed Feb 2015
microbiome hacking
& DIY fecal transplants
New Study: Microbiome & Weight Loss
LifeNome - allergies, well-being
DNAFit - sports, diet
Healthspek PGT - pharmacogenetics
Genelex - paternity, pharmacogenetics
IDNA.com - relationships
Athletigene - sports performance
A sampling of personalized genomics companies
Pet DNA Testing
Breed Identification
Vet Insurance
Cancer Research
Future
Drugs and
Precision
Medicine
efficacy
adverse effects
dosing
23andMe and Apple
enter drug research business
"crowd-sourced clinical trials"
Apple ResearchKit
- Asthma
- Parkinson's Disease
- Breast Cancer
- Diabetes
- Cardiovascular
Enrolled 7400+ people in 24 hours.
Previous largest study was 1700.
"an app store for
DNA sequence"
+ Warburg Pincus + Sutter Hill Ventures = $100M
first partner:
Next Generation Sequencing
Next
New business models
New players in bottom of the market
New Tech drops cost more
- Bioweather Maps
- Biodefense / Airport Scanners
- Grocery scanners
- Handheld
Personal
Genomics
& Metabolism
http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21679436-body-temperature-seems-part-be-controlled-gut-bacteria-cold-weather
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867415014841
Mice with "cold microbiomes" change insulin sensitivity, calorie absorption, intestine anatomy
Full transcript