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what is marketing

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Aya Mohamed

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of what is marketing

Is the process by which companies create value for customers and building strong Relationship in order to sell goods and products .

What is Marketing ?

 Responsible for know what people need and want

 Help establish desirable pricing strategy

 Promote an organization

 Distributing products to customers

What does a marketing department do ?
A-Responsible for know what people need and want and demand

:- States of felt deprivation

:- Are shaped by one's society and are description in terms of objects that will satisfy needs .

:- When backed by buying power , wants become demands .
1-The production era

2-The sales concept era

3-The marketing concept era

4-The Social marketing era

5-The customer relationship era
The Evolution Of Marketing :-
-Focused solely on production

-The mindset was "good quality product would simply sell itself .

-This approach work because:-
strong demand and a limited supply of products .

The Production Concept Era :-
The Sales Concept Era

-Great depression .
-people bout only what they want .

-Supply exceed the demand

-Greater competition for customers

-Heavy public advertising

- Identify customer needs before product is designed
- Align all functions of the organization to meeting or exceeding customer needs

1-Develop product that customer need .

2-Focus on product with highest profit .

3-Commit total org to delivering superior products and customers services .

-An offshoot of the marketing concept and corporate social responsibility

-The companies work for the benefit of both consumer and society while still attaining profit .

-The process of establishing long-term relationships with individual customers to foster loyalty and repeat business .

-The idea to learn as much as possible about customers and their shopping behavior and create meaningful one-on-one interaction with each of them .
The marketing strategy consists of two major elements :

1-An organization must determine its target market
and then
2-develop a marketing mix to meet the needs of that markets

The Target Market
:- is a specific group of potential customers on which a firm focuses its marketing efforts .

The Marketing Mix
:- is combination of four factors - called The four Ps of Marketing - designed to serve the target market .
 Products
 price
 promotion
 place

Marketing strategy and the marketing mix :-

1- Identify a market need

2- Conduct market research and develop a marketing plan

3- Identify Target customers

4- Implement the marketing mix

5- Nature good customers relationships

The Marketing Process :-
The Marketing Environment

The marketing environment includes the
actors and forces
marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build
and maintain successful relationships with customers.

The Company’s Micro environment
A micro environment consists of the actors close to the company
that affect its ability to serve its customers, the company,
suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets,
competitors, and public.

The Company's Macro environment:-
1-The larger societal forces that affect the micro environment,they affect the organization as a whole system indirectly on the long run
2-All of them out of control from management
3-Hard to foretasted

The Micro environment

1- The company
2- Suppliers
3-Marketing Intermediaries
4-Customer markets
6-Public (customer)

Is the systematic design ,collection , analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific Marketing situation facing an org .

It can be simple

:- as brief survey with an invoice or via - email
It can be complex

:- as conducting a full-blown analysis

The steps which involved in this process:-

Define the marketing need and opportunity

Collect the relevant data

Analyze the data.

Interpret analytical results and reach conclusions.

Act on research conclusions

- Observation
- Questionnaires
- Surveys
- Focus groups
- Customers feedback
- Sampling
- Controlled experiments
Primary sources of data :-


Government sources
- Commercial sources
- Organizational sources
- Magazines
- Newspapers
- Internal sources
- other sources
Secondary sources of data:-
Market segmentation:-
refers to dividing the markets into
segments of customers.

Target marketing
:- refers to which segments to go after.

Demarketing is marketing to reduce demand temporarily or
permanently; the aim is not to destroy demand but to reduce
or shift it.
-Designing a Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy
Selecting Customers to Serve
Choosing a Value Proposition
The value proposition
is the set of benefits or values a
company promises to deliver to customers to satisfy their
Marketing Management Orientations

Production concept Product concept Selling concept
Marketing concept Societal concept
Marketing plan:- Is a written document that specifies the marketing activities that will take place to achieve org objectives

- Help to carry out the strategies as determined by Marketing research .

- It is written document because details about tasks to be performed by employees can be easily to lost or forgotten if communicated orally .

What are the elements of market:-
There are four market elements:-

• A clearly written marketing objectives:-Should be realistic , time frame and quantifiable .
• performance of situational analysis
• selection of target markets
• Implements , evaluation , and control of the marketing mix

Segmentation and Targeting
Market segmentation
is the process that companies use to divide large heterogeneous markets into small markets that can be reached more efficiently and effectively with products and services that match their unique needs.

Market targeting (targeting)
is the process of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter.

Market Differentiation and Positioning
involves actually differentiating the market offering to create superior customer value.

consists of arranging for a market offering to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers.

Market Segmentation
:- Product differentiation Variety Quality Design Features
Brand name Packaging Services

:- Cover costs List price Discount Allowances
Competitively priced Payment period Credit term

:- Inform and persuade customers to buy
Build positive customer relationships
Advertising Personal selling sales promotion PR

:- Distribution channel
Distributors and wholesalers
Channels coverage location inventory transportation logistics

Market offerings
:- are some combination of products,
services, information, or experiences offered to a market to
satisfy its needs or wants.

Marketing myopia
:-is focusing only on existing wants and
losing sight of underlying consumer needs.
B-Market Offerings: Products, Services and Experiences
C-Customer Value and Satisfaction

- Whenever a business satisfies a need it
creates value to customers.

But How customers Measure value ?
Value of product equal the ratio of product’s benefit to its cost .
Value = benefits / costs

With a high value product
its benefits far exceed its cost .
A low value product
has few benefits in Relation to its cost .
Successful Marketing finds way to increase value .

Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired object from
someone by offering something in return.

Marketers aim at building strong relationships by consistently
delivering superior customer value.

2-Designing a Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy

Marketing Management

Marketing management :-is the art and science of choosing
target markets and building profitable relationships with them.

• What customers will we serve?
• How can we best serve these customers?

Integrated marketing program is a comprehensive plan
that communicates and delivers the intended value to chosen
3-Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program
The overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer
relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction.

Customer perceived
• The difference
between total
Customer value
and total customer cost

Customer satisfaction
• The extent to
which a product’s
perceived performance
matches a buyer’s
يDeveloping and integrated marketing mix :-
Marketing analysis :-
SWOT Analysis
Select customers to serve:-

Divided the total market into small segments

Targeting:- Select the segment or segments to enter
Decide on a value proposition :-

Differentiation:- Differentiate the market offering to create superior customer value

positioning :-
position the market offering in the mind of target customers .

Create value for target customer

Geographic segmentation
:-divides the market into different geographical units such as nations, regions, provinces, parishes, cities, or even neighborhoods.

Demographic segmentation
divides the market into groups based on variables such as age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation, and nationality.

Psychographic segmentation
:-segmentation divides buyers into different groups based on social class, lifestyle, or personality characteristics.

Behavioral segmentation
Behavioral segmentation divides buyers into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a product.

Market Segmentation :-
Requirements for Effective Segmentation

To be useful, market segments must be:

-Measurable -Substantial
-Accessible -Differentiable

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning
Market Targeting
Selecting Target Marketing Segments

Undifferentiated marketing
:-targets the whole market with one offer
Mass marketing
Focuses on common needs rather than what’s different

Limited Resources Small size

Differentiated marketing
:-targets several different market segments and designs separate offers for each.
Goal is to achieve higher sales and a stronger position
More expensive than undifferentiated marketing

Great Resource Large size

Market Targeting

Selecting Target Marketing Segments

Concentrated marketing
targets a large share of one or a few smaller segments or niches.
Limited company resources
Knowledge of the market
More effective and efficient

Limited Resources Small size

is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations.
Local marketing
Individual marketing

Local marketing
involves tailoring brands and promotion to the needs and wants of local customer groups

Individual marketing

involves tailoring products and marketing programs to the needs and preferences of individual customers.
Also known as:
One-to-one marketing
Customized marketing or mass customization
Markets-of-one marketing

How to choose Targeting strategy ?

Choosing a Targeting Strategy

Depends on:
Company resources
Product variability
Product life-cycle stage
Market variability
Competitor’s marketing strategies

Differentiation and Positioning


Product position is the way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes—the place the product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing products.


Differentiation and Positioning

Choosing a Differentiation and Positioning Strategy

-Identifying a set of possible competitive advantages to build a position

Competitive advantage
An advantage over competitors gained by offering greater customer value either though lower prices or by providing more benefits to justify higher price

-Choosing the right competitive advantages

-Selecting an overall positioning strategy

Nontraditional Marketing

Not-for-profit organizations must market their

-Events, causes, locations, or individuals
-Charitable organizations
-Countries, states, and cities

Consumer Buying Process

1-Need recognition
- The buyer recognizes a problem or need.
- The need can be triggered by either :internal stimuli or external stimuli.

2-Information search
- Information search may or may not occur.
- Consumers can obtain information from any of several sources:
a. Personal sources (family, friends, neighbors, acquaintances),
b. Commercial sources (advertising, salespeople, website dealers, packaging, displays),
c. Public sources (mass media, consumer rating organizations, Internet searches), and
d. Experiential sources (handling, examining, using the product).

3-Evaluation of alternatives
- Alternative evaluation: how the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices.
- In some cases, consumers use careful calculations and logical thinking.
- At other times, the same consumers do little or no evaluating; instead they buy on impulse and rely on intuition.

What Influences Consumer Decision Making?

Personal Influence
:- age , lifestyle , personality

Sociocultural Influence
:- Cultural , Social class , Family , peers

Psychological Influence
:- Motivation , perception , attitudes ,education

Marketing mix Influence
:- -product , price , promotion , place

Situational Influence
:- physical , type of product purchased

The Marketing Concept Era
The Social Marketing Era
The Customer Relationship Era
D-Exchanges and Relationships
Target Market :-
Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

The Marketing plan:-
Marketing research :-
What is market research , and what is the steps involved in the process ?
Market Segmentation
Segmenting consumer markets
4-Building Customer Relationships
Customer relationship management (CRM):
is marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permanently
; the aim is not to destroy demand but to reduce
or shift it.
Types of Buying Decision Behavior
Complex buying decision
- Most complicated behavioral situation.
- Highly technical & expensive goods and services.
- High customer involvement.
- Significant differences among brands.
- Know the brand differences accurately.
- High risks.
- E.g. Buying a new car.
Dissonance-reducing buying decision
- Less complicated behavioral situation.
- High customer involvement
- Less costs.
- Less risks.
- Few brand differences.
- Low technicality
- Consumer does not know the differences among brands
- E.g. Buying kitchen machine

Habitual buying decision
- Easiest buying behavior,
- Low customer involvement
- No technicality
- Clear & obvious differences among brands.
- Personal items
- No risks & low costs.
- E.g. Buying cheese, toothpaste,… etc

Variety-Seeking buying decision
- Low customer involvement
- Significant brand differences
- Involves more than one brand.
- Low technicality
- Little information about the brand differences.
- E.g. Buying printer’s cartilage
1-Understanding the Marketplace and Customer Needs
is the set of actual and potential buyers of a
E- A Market

4-Purchase or no purchase decision
- Generally, the consumer’s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand.
- Two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision: The attitudes of others & Unexpected situational factors

5-Post-purchase evaluation

- The difference between the consumer’s expectations and the perceived performance of the good purchased determines how satisfied the consumer is.
- If the product falls short of expectations, the consumer is disappointed; if it meets expectations, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds expectations, the consumer is said to be delighted.
- Cognitive dissonance, or discomfort caused by post purchase conflict, occurs in most major purchases.
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