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Energy Cell Research Project

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by

Jordan Trapp

on 19 August 2014

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Transcript of Energy Cell Research Project

Photovoltaic Cells
The Project
Why and how are we doing this?
Final Reflections
Objective
Fabricate a photovoltaic cell and verify through testing theoretical characteristics of photovoltaic cells.
Background
Energy Cells
Energy Cell Research Project
The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light exciting electrons into a higher state of energy, allowing them to act as charge carriers for an electric current.
Converts solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors to generate electrical power
By: Jordan Trapp, Jenna Tashiro, Natalie Demirjian, Branden Nikkari
Solar Energy
Materials used in the creation of solar cells must be comprised of materials that will absorb the spectrum of light available.
Test One
Test various sheet sizes of the copper metal to determine how surface area (electron availability) affects voltage and amperage.
Hypothesis
The larger sheet of metal will produce a higher voltage and current.
Test Three
Vary distance of light source to see the effect of intensity of light on the voltage and current
Hypothesis
Test Two
Vary the amount of salt dissolved in the water to determine what concentration will produce the highest voltage and current.
Hypothesis
Test Four
Vary angle of direct, 45 degrees, 60 degrees of light source to cell to determine the effect on voltage and current.
Hypothesis
A straight angle will produce the most conductivity.
As the surface area of the sheet increases, the ability of the cell to conduct electricity increases.
Claims
Evidence
Claims
As concentration of sodium chloride increase, the conductivity of the photovoltaic cell decreased.
Evidence
Claims
Light intensity was varied by distance.

The data for light intensity varied by distance was determined to be inconclusive.
Evidence
Claims
The data for varied angles was determined to be inconclusive.
Evidence
Fabrication of PV Cell
Fabricate the cell using a 1:2:3 surface area ratio
Take open voltage and current of three different sized copper sheets
When sunlight hits the cells, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms. The movement of electrons through the cell generates electricity.
Solar energy is an inexhaustible fuel source that little to no carbon into the atmosphere.
Test Three: Testing the Fabricated Cell Distance Variable

Test emission spectroscopy to determine light intensity at 1:2:3 ratio of distances
Light sources used: 60 W Incandescent Desk Lamp, 15 W Compact Fluorescent Lamp, & 9.5 W LED Lamp
Take current and open circuit volt readings for the three light sources at three distances for direct position

Cut two coppers sheets
Heat one sheet
oxidation reaction: 4Cu + O2 --> 2Cu2O and 2Cu2O + O2 --> 4CuO
Black cupric oxide layer will flake off.
~1 gram Sodium Chloride in 200 mL of DI water.
Bend copper sheets and place in solution
Attach wires to multimeter
Test One: Optimum Copper Sheet Size
Test Two: Optimum Salt to Water Ratio
3:2:1 g ratio of NaCl to 200 mL water
Test open voltage and current of each concentration
Test Four: Test Fabricated Cell Angle
Test emission spectroscopy to determine light intensity at varying angles.
Light sources used: 60 W Incandescent Desk Lamp, 15 W Compact Fluorescent Lamp, & 9.5 W LED Lamp
Take current and open circuit volt readings for the three light sources for three angles
The only limitation to solar energy is that it cannot be utilized at night.
The earth receives about 1,366 watts of direct solar radiation per square meter.
A higher concentration of sodium chloride will increase the ability of the photovoltaic cell to conduct electricity because there will be more ions present in the water.
A closer distance will be optimal for the photovoltaic cell to conduct electricity.
These results did not support our hypothesis.
Improvements
Test One
Differences in the condition of the copper sheets
Test Two
Test with a negative control
Other electrolytes
Test Three
Light sources that do not produce heat
Thermometer
Test Four
More angles/protractor
Stationary light
Further Research
Test unknown variables
Information about LEDs
Use different materials
Better Semiconductive Materials
Full transcript