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Latin

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Alex Pretorius

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Latin

Latin
The Basics of Declension
A declension is which way the word ends in. There are three declensions for accusative and nominative, 1st, 2nd and 3rd declension. A noun will only be in one declension but will switch from nominative to accusative to fit the purpose of the sentence.
The 1st declension relates more to female things, e.g puell
a (nominative)
, puell
am (accusative)
. The 2nd declension relates more to males, e.g fīli
us (nominative)
, fīli
um (accusative).
In the 3rd declension it is more neutral, nominative doesn't have a set ending although accusative ends in an 'em', e.g
canis, leō
(nominative)
, can
em
, leōn
em (accusative).
Latin and its Indo-European Language Family
The Latin language is 2000 years old and started in Lachen - around Rome - that's how Latin got its name. Many people say that Latin is a dead language, one that no one would ever use. That isn't completely true. Like all languages, Latin changed over time, developing as time passed, words dying off and new accents slowly coming into place. This is how almost 8,000,000 people speak Latin, EVOLVED Latin. The Latin language evolved into Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian. For example the Spanish word for mother is modre, the french word is mere, and these are both derivatives as they evolved from the Latin word for mother - mater. You could also call these cognates because modre and mere both come from the same origin.
Endings of a noun change with grammar, endings of verbs change with the subject. If 'I' is doing the action then the end changes to an 'o', if 'you' the end changes to an 's', and if 'he' or 'she'
the end changes to a 't', this is only used for singular nouns.
Indo-European
Basic English Grammar. Part 1
A language consists of a sequence of words that forms sentences. Sentences cannot be grammatically correct without a verb - a doing word - and a noun - people, places, or things (including hypothetical concepts or ideas) together with either adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases. Latin is the same as English in this regard - every sentence needs a noun to do the action of the verb. An adjective describes the noun, an adverb describes the verb, and a prepositional phrase is a short phrase that has a short word and a noun. These are the sine qua non - the essentials - of Latin or English grammar.
Persian
Farsi
Pashto
Kurdish
Sanskrit
Hindi
Bengali
Punjabi
Albanian
Slavic
Russian
Polish
Armenian
Greek
Gothic
Scandinavian
languages
Dutch
German
English
Ancient Celtic
Irish
Gaelic
Scottish
Gaelic
Welsh
Latin
French
Spanish
Portuguese
Italian
Indo-European is the official language of all 6 major continents.
Almost 2 billion people speak indo-European. All indo-European languages originated from a small group of people, most likely from Russia, around 6000 years ago.
The Latin Alphabet
The English alphabet is derived from the Latin alphabet, with many of the letters being the same in both alphabets.
The letter 'C' sounds like
c
at, it never sounded like
c
inch. Caesar was said as
k
aiser, not
cee-zar
. In medieval times, the 'C' sounded more like
ch
ance - a softer sound.
The letter 'G' sounded like
g
ain, never soft like gym.
'I' could be a vowel or a consonant, in English 'I' can only be a vowel. In medieval times they made the 'I' longer and curled it into a 'J' shape.
Like English, Latin always has a 'U' next to the letter 'Q'.
They described 'R' as the dog letter as it sounds like a dog growling, grrrrrrrr.
'S' was always pronounced like
s
oot never ro
s
e
They used to write the capital 'U's like 'v's
The letter 'V' is pronounced like a 'W', e.g we, welcome.
Some of these sounds would have changed
over time as the language evolved.
Latin Alphabet
vowel pronunciation
Long
Short
ā
ē
ī
ō
ū
y
f
a
ther
'a' sound = d
a
te
'e' sound = mach
i
ne
h
o
ly
'oo' sound = h
oo
t
_
sounds like German über. pronounced oobear
a
e
i
o
u
y
ide
a
b
e
t
s
i
t
o
ff
f
oo
t
sounds like french t
u
The small lines on top of the long sounding letters are called Macrons. They indicate if it is a long or short sounding letter, e.g ā=f
a
ther, a=idea. Macrons were only invented after the classical Roman and Greek times.
Dipthong

A dipthong is when two vowels occur in the same syllable. You end up pronouncing each vowel just not saying each one of them separately.

The most common of them is ae - pronounced aye, and ei - pronounced a.
There are also a few extras - oe, eu, au, ui.
Basic English Grammar
All verbs must have a subject which controls the verb. All verbs fit into one of three groups: transitive, intransitive and linking.

"The grumpy lady watched the TV show".
Watched is a transitive verb because it links the lady to the TV show
Intransitive verb
The dog barked
This sentence contains an intransitive verb because barked doesn't link dog to anything.
Linking verb
The horse is big
'Is' is the Linking verb because it links the two word/sides together. You can imagine the 'is' being a equals sign as the horse equals big.
A transitive verb carries an action across from one noun to another
Transitive verb
Nominative and
Accusative Cases
Latin is an inflected language, which means the ending of the noun changes depending on how its being used in a sentence.
The pig is following the human
doing
receiving
In Latin a noun will differ depending on whether it is doing or receiving the action of the verb.
In the
nominative
case the noun is the subject of the verb. This means nothing is receiving what the noun is doing, e.g


In the
accusative
case the noun is the direct object of the verb. This
means that what the noun is doing is also being received by something
else, e.g
servus sedet
doing
The slave is doing the sitting but nothing is receiving it.
dominus survum salūtat
doing
receiving
The master is doing the action that will be received by the slave.
In the accusative case, the word will always end in an 'm'.
"The dog is chasing the cat". In English the direct object (cat) comes after the verb (chasing).
In Latin this sentence would be said as "the dog the cat is chasing" (the object comes before the verb).
If the sentence contains an 'is' this means that both sides of 'is' will be equal. Both sides will be in nominative case.
Basic Latin Word Order
"The cat jumped over the couch"
This sentence is in English order, subject 1st, then verb 2nd, and, lastly object or prepositional phrase. This order of the sentence would not be the same in Latin. In Latin the word order is s-o-v - subject, object, verb - 45% of languages share this order. 42% of languages are s-v-o, which includes English. 9% of languages are v-s-o, 3% are v-o-s, and 1% is o-v-s.

The ending of the word changes in the Latin language when the noun is doing the action - ending is 'us' - and when the noun is receiving the action - ends in 'um' - e.g


The Singular of the Present Tense
Third Person Plural
serv
us
domin
um
salūtat
receiving action
doing action
direct object
subject
When you change the person of the subject the ending of the verb changes, this is called a subject verb agreement, e.g
1st person

2nd person

3rd person
I greet
you greet
the friend greets
In Latin there is no formal way of saying 'you'.
ego salūt
ō
English
Latin
tū salūtā
s
amīcus salūta
t
ego _____ō
tū ____s
amicus _____t
In a similar way to English where the sentence changes because of the subject (I am, you are, my friend is), in Latin, the verb changes according to the subject (ego sum, tu es, amicus est).
Because of the verb change in Latin, sometimes one leaves off the ego or tu because its obvious who's speaking, e.g "you hear" in English is "audis" in Latin, not "tū audis" as one would expect.
declension singular
plural
1st
declension
2nd
declension
3rd
declension
a
ae
us
ī
____
ēs
1st
puella
puellae
2nd
3rd
amicus
amicī
leō
leōnēs
Declensions
Third person plural verb
salūta
t

salūta
nt
dūci
t

dūcu
nt
t
nt
plural
singular
by Alex Pretorius
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