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Aristotle vs Descartes
Transcript of Aristotle vs Descartes
Fatima, Michael, Alex, James, Julio, and Chris Aristotle
Descartes Lived from 384-322 BC
Studied in The Academy for 20 years under Plato
Later established his own school known as the Lyceum where he taught Alexander
Great believer in empirical investigation to learning about the natural world
Died of natural causes and was buried next to his wife Descartes Epistemology Aristotle Lived from 1596-1650 AD
Known as the “Father of Modern Philosophy”
Had 3 “visions” that greatly influenced him to pursuit the truth in wisdom
Was said to have died of pneumonia and damage to health due to over working Knowledge must be meaningfully connected to something "real"
Reasoning- used both inductive and deductive reasoning
Minds operations- Representative pictures, Recollection, Reason(1st principle of knowledge) which develops "concepts"
Used Scientific Method- His philosophy aims at universals Aristotle Descartes First element of knowledge-I think therefore I am
Conclusions made from first element- Knowledge of god and knowledge of matter
Used the Geometrical method- Used theories and problems Value Theory The “chief end” of life is “happiness.”
This "happiness" is characterized by balance between moral or character trait extremes.
To Aristotle humans were unique.
He places a very high value on the individual
The core of his moral virtue is his doctrine of the mean. According to this doctrine, moral virtues are desire-regulating character traits which are lived at a mean between more extreme character traits
Moral virtue is about the exercise of control over natural feelings
Good values is indicated through the use of good judgment in finding an effective balance between extremes Aristotle Descartes Shaped by the thinking and views of Thomas Aquinas of natural law:
Clear and distinct ideas
Freedom and Passions
Proposes “a provisional moral code consisting of just three or four maxims” for his life
The correct use of free will is identified as the critical factor in the attainment of knowledge
Ethics of generosity
-“causes a person’s self-esteem to be as great as it may legitimately be”. Metaphysics Dualist, focusing on Form (Essence) and Matter (Substance)
Leading question "What is meant by the real or true substance?"
Form is characterized by four causes:
Material, Efficient, Formal, and Final
Forms exist in the essence of objects themselves
Views the soul as the perfect expression of realization of a natural body
The soul can perform certain functions for nutrition, movement, and reason
Saw God as the Prime Mover, who is the ultimate source of all causation and movement Aristotle Descartes Descartes used induction to assert that his mind was real ("Cogito ergo sum"). Using deduction, he then asserted that God existed, followed by our world.
Believed that the mind was connected to the body at the pineal gland, and asserted that the body interacts with the body and vice versa (Interactionalism).
-Believed that natural law was a real factor affecting the universe.
Defined the mind as a substance the essence of which is to think, and matter as a substance the essence of which is to be extended.
Dualist, two fundamental substances being the mind and the body.
Believed that god was the guarantor of foundational, clear, and distinct ideas.
Asserted that we had three things to be certain of:
Certainty of self
Certainty of God
Certainty of our world