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Sakibur Rahman

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Cars

What is a Car?
A car is a self-powered vehicle which has 3-4 wheels and an internal combustion engine, it is used for transportation. A car may also have electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine or it may have both, which is usually then called a hybrid. It can hold many or a couple of people with cargo space or no cargo space at all.
#3 The Power Stroke
While the piston is at the top of the cylinder, the mixture of air and fuel gets ignited by the spark plug and the resulting combustion of the compressed mixture of fuel and air forces the piston to the bottom of the cylinder.

Have you ever wondered what V6, V8 or the numbers on the types of gas there are at gas stations meant? Well in this presentation you will be learning about Cars, how a cars engine works octane rating, and other stuff.
What is the 4 stroke cycle?
The four stroke cycle is how a car's engine's cylinders work to produce power.
#4 The Exhaust Stroke
The piston again returns to the top while the exhaust valve is open. This removes the spent mixture of fuel and air through the open exhaust valves.

The Different Types of Engines?
Not all cars are the same, they may have different types of suspension, bodywork, exhaust and engines. Here I’ll be talking about these engines: a Inline 4, a V6, a V8, the Wankel Engine, and a W16 engine.
How The 4 Stroke Cycle Works?
#1 The Intake Stroke
The piston descends sucking in air through open intake valves as fuel is injected through the fuel injectors.

What is an Internal Combustion Engine
An internal combustion engine is an engine that generates and produces power by the burning of gasoline with air inside the engine. The hot gases being produced by the combustion process used to drive a piston.
Nissan GT-R Nismo
NISMO®-tuned 600-hp, 3.8-liter, high-capacity twin-turbocharged V6 engine
Chevy Camaro Z28
Naturally Aspirated 505-hp 7.0 Litre V8 Engine
#2 The Compression Stroke
With all the valves closed, the piston ascends to the top of the cylinder compressing the mixture of air and fuel into the cylinder head.

Octane Rating
Octane rating is a standard measure of performance in engine fuel.
The 3 most common fuel types are regular 87, plus 89, and premium 93.
The octane number refers to its resistance of autoignition.
Autoignition is when the mixture is ignited by being compressed alone without the spark from the spark plug.
The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before igniting.
High performance engines use higher octane fuel because they require higher compression ratios.
When using a higher octane rating for a car that does not require that type of fuel, can actually be useless and could also damage your vehicle, resulting in money loss since higher octane fuel costs way more than regular fuel and if your engine gets damaged it would cost a lot to fix

The Inline 4 (straight 4)
Motor Oil
Motor oil is a lubricant that is used to lubricate internal combustion engines.
The function of lubrication is to reduce wear on moving parts. Motor oil also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing and cools down the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts in the engine.
It is important that oil does not go in the combustion process of the engine so the rings around the top of the piston stop oil from entering.
The oil pump keeps the oil properly pressurized and flowing through the engine.
The oil pan holds the oil.
The oil filter removes unwanted materials from the oil.
Oil galleries are channels that carries out oil to different moving parts in the engine.

Every cars engine gets very hot, this is why every car has a radiator, a fan and engine coolant.
Anti-Freeze which is engine coolant is a green liquid found in a radiator.
It is normally in a mixture of 50% water and 50% coolant.
It resists from freezing and from boiling.
The radiator is made up of metal tubes and fins.When the coolant which is very hot returns for the engine block, it passes through the tubes. Air flowing through the metal fins of the radiator cools the coolant for preparation for another cycle.
The water pump like the oil pump keeps the coolant system properly pressurized and flowing.
Coolant channels surrounds the cylinders and ports of the engine.
The inline 4 engine is a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine with all of its cylinders mounted in a straight line.
I4 engines are usually only under the displacement(size of the engine) of 2.4 liters.
It is most commonly used in many economic cars these days such as the Honda Civic, Toyota Corolla, Ford Fiesta E.T.C.
This type of engine is smoother than a 1, 2, or 3 cylinder engine therefore making it popular in economic cars, but it creates minor vibrations, also when the engine size and power increases the vibrations becomes worse. This is a reason why a car with a big engine uses a different engine layout to avoid this problem.

The V6 Engine
A V6 engine is not an engine laid out in a straight line but with its 6 cylinders mounted in 2 banks of 3 cylinders.
It is usually set at a 60 or a 90 degree angle to each other.
The displacement of a V6 engine is usually 2 to 4 liters and is a lot smoother than a Inline 4 engine.
It is commonly used in mid-sized cars such as the Nissan Maxima and sometimes as an optional engine for a car with a standard Inline 4 engine.
A V6 engine has better fuel consumption than a V8 therefore it is used in many cars these days.
Many types of V6 engines have outputted more power than a V8 engine.

V8 Engines
A V8 engine is like the V6 engine where it is in a V layout but has 2 more cylinders.
It has 4 cylinders in each bank and is usually laid out in a 90 degree angle.
V8 engines are most commonly used in pickup trucks and american muscle cars such as the Chevy Camaro, Ford Mustang, and Dodge Challenger and even though these cars start off at a low price with a basic V6 engine you can get different versions of these cars with different engines with even more power costing even more.
V8 engines might give a lot of power but they also burn a lot of gas quickly meaning it would cost more to maintain a car since gas prices are quite a lot these days especially in the summer.

The Wankel Engine
The Wankel engine (also known as a rotary engine) is a type of internal combustion engine with no pistons, instead with a rotor.
This type of engine is small and the rotor turns in one direction only but still has the same 4-stroke cycle.
The wankel engine had very less vibrations comparing them to regular piston engines.
The Mazda RX-8 and RX-7 had the wankel engine but they were discontinued.

The W16 engine
A W16 engine has a displacement of 8 liter and has 16 cylinders in a four bank W configuration.
The Volkswagen Group is the only car manufacturer that currently produces the W16 engine and is only used in the Bugatti Veyron.
The W16 engine is made up of two VR8 engines. A VR8 engine is a engine with 8 cylinders in a V shape but more narrow than a regular V8.
The W16 engine from Bugatti can produce up to 1200 Horsepower.
The Bugatti Veyron can go over 400 km/h and at speed over 200 km/h the airbrake of the car is deployed when the brake pedal is pressed
The Battery and Electrical components of a Car
The battery for a car supplies power for starting and other electrical components in your car such as the stereo system.
A spark plug delivers the electrical spark during the 4 stroke cycle of your engine to ignite the fuel/air mixture for a combustion.
The distributor distributes electricity to spark plugs in the correct timing and order.
Electricity from the battery powers the starter to crank the engine to start its combustion process.
The alternator which is like a generator, converts power from the engines mechanical energy into electricity to power the battery and run other electrical systems while the engine is running.

The Exhaust System
The exhaust manifold collects the gases from each cylinder in your engine after the 4th stroke into one pipe.
It then takes the exhaust through pipes into the catalytic converter which reduces toxic chemicals in the exhaust and then to the muffler which reduces engine noise.

The Tesla Model S
The Tesla Model S is not a regular gas powered car nor is it a hybrid (gas and electric powered), it is a fully electric car capable of going up to 435 kilometers in one full charge and is also capable of getting charged to 80% in 40 minutes.
With the dual motor 85 kWh performance version of the car the Model S has a maximum output of 691 horsepower with 221 hp in the front and 470 hp in the rear.
This means that the car can go from 0-100 km/h in only 3.4 seconds and has a top speed of 250km/h, not bad for a electric car.
The Tesla Model S does not have ordinary single-purpose larger format cells but instead they use thousands of lithium-ion 18650 commodity cells which are found in the battery packs of your laptops and phones.
The Model S has a lot of cargo space in the front and back of the vehicle since the battery is in the floor of the car and because there is no engine to be placed in.
The Tesla Model S (Cont'd)
Tesla has created charging stations around North America which are like gas stations except they charge Tesla’s.
All Model S’s with the 85 kWh battery packs can be charged at the Supercharger stations in only 20 minutes for half charge at no extra costs.
The new versions of the Model S came with Autopilot which pretty much drives your car without you doing anything because of its forward looking camera, radar, 360-degree ultrasonic sensors that monitors the surrounding roadway.
When the car is at cruise control (called autopilot for Tesla Model S) it can follow road signs such as speed limits and adapt to that speed by itself, it can go through corners by itself without you touching the steering wheel, it can slow and stop itself, it looks out for you for while changing lanes and if a car is suddenly is stopped in front of you.
These are some of the reasons why the Tesla Model S has the highest safety rating in America.

Hope you enjoyed the presentation
The difference and similarities of turbochargers and superchargers
But first what are they?
Turbochargers and superchargers are both forced induction systems.
Meaning that they compress air allowing more air into the engine which means more power without sizing up the engine
What are the similarities?
They both compress air and allow more air molecules into the engine
A super/turbocharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without charging
They both burn more fuel allowing for more energy to be released
Super/Turbocharged engines produces 40% to 100%+ more power than naturally aspirated engines
What are the differences?
Turbochargers are powered by the exhaust stream, the exhaust runs through a turbine which spins the compressor
Superchargers are powered by a belt that connects directly to the engine. It gets its power the same way the water pump and alternator does
Turbochargers are more efficient than superchargers since superchargers need power from the engine to be compressing air and also because turbos are powered by the wasted gases from the engine
Superchargers are always compressing air since it is powered a belt connected to the engine while turbos need to wait until enough engine speed to be compressing air
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