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Grade 8 Cell Disease Project

Cystic Fibrosis
by

Shreeya Patel

on 31 May 2014

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Transcript of Grade 8 Cell Disease Project

Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis is a common fatal genetic disease which has no cure yet. It is a multi-system disease affecting the lungs and digestive system. In the lungs, where the effects of the disease are the most overwhelming, a build-up of thick mucus causes severe respiratory problems. It’s difficult to clear bacteria from the lungs so it leads to cycles of infection and inflammation, which damage delicate lung tissue.
The blockage in the digestive tract make it difficult to digest and absorb nutrients from food. In order to make things easier, large portions of digestive enzymes (about 20 pills a day) need to be taken every snack and meal.


Signs, symptoms, and diagnosing.
Difficulty breathing and life-altering respiratory tract problems
(including a wet, rattling cough that expels viscous mucus, possibly with blood streaking.)
Severe, chronic lung infections
(leading to permanent lung damage and lung disease, the primary cause of CF-related deaths.)
Failure to grow or gain weight
(requiring a high calorie diet to maintain adequate growth in childhood and nutrition in adulthood.)
Extreme difficulty digesting food
(requiring many pancreatic enzymes at each meal to absorb nutrients.)



If someone suspects you have Cystic Fibrosis, you are recommended to take the “sweat test.” This test measures how much salt you have in your sweat; if you have a high level of salt then you likely are diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis.


What causes cystic fibrosis?
Cystic Fibrosis is a genetics disorder which is given from birth. Cystic Fibrosis occurs when a child receives two defective copies of the gene responsible for Cystic Fibrosis; one from each parent.
About one in twenty-five Canadians is a Cystic Fibrosis carrier, transferring only one defective version of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis. The carriers do not have, and can never get, Cystic Fibrosis. Most carriers don’t even know they are carrier until they have a child with Cystic Fibrosis.

When two carriers have a child, there is a…

25% chance the child will be born with cystic fibrosis
50% chance the child will not have CF, but will be a carrier
25% chance the child will not have CF and will not be a carrier


Research Milestones
1970s – Scientists introduce revolutionary diets which are unrestricted in fats, and make changes in pancreatic enzyme therapy, to help children with cystic fibrosis grow and gain weight.

1985 – Researchers map the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis to chromosome 7, helping to close in on the precise location of the gene.

1988 – Surgeons perform the world’s first successful double-lung transplant on a person with cystic fibrosis.

1989 – Researchers discover the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis.

1990 – Scientists reverse the CF defect under laboratory conditions by constructing a normal version of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis and transferring it into CF-affected cells, demonstrating the potential for treating cystic fibrosis through gene therapy.

1990 – Researchers identify the precise cells in the body affected by cystic fibrosis and obtain the first direct evidence that the dysfunctional CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) protein is a chloride channel.

1992 – Researchers establish a new therapeutic approach to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial infections by using alternating courses of different antibiotics.

1998 – Scientists replace the dysfunctional protein in cystic fibrosis, CFTR, with functional CFTR protein in a mouse model, enhancing the possibility of CF protein replacement therapy.

1998 – Researchers discover how to ensure the CF mouse model survives beyond weaning, through dietary changes, and prepare normal CFTR protein for possible therapeutic use.

2001 – Investigators complete Phase I clinical trials for dextran, a compound that seems to prevent bacteria from sticking to CF-affected lungs and promote mucus clearance; and test Prolastin®, a compound that reduces lung damage.


By:
Khadijah, Denushan, Raagavi, and Shreeya
Research Milestones
2005 – Researchers demonstrate that cationic peptides - naturally-occurring antibiotics – have the potential to reduce infection and inflammation in CF patients.

2007– In a mouse model, researchers develop and test an effective vaccine against the bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia – a harmful, even deadly, bacteria in CF lungs.

2008 – Researchers identify two modifier genes that affect lung disease severity and the age of the first onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial infection.

2008 – Investigators identify a new approach to treating “lung flare-ups” by targeting a bacterium that aggravates Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, instead of targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa directly.

2008 – Scientists screen tens of thousands of compounds and identify several that seem to restore (or compensate for) defective CFTR protein activity.

2009 – Researchers identify a modifier gene that may increase the likelihood of liver disease in people with cystic fibrosis.

2009 – Researchers discover a gene therapy technique that could double the number and improve the condition of donor lungs, dramatically enhancing health for cystic fibrosis patients who have had transplants.

2009 – Scientists discover that the mutated gene that causes cystic fibrosis is also responsible for muscle loss in CF patients, paving the way for novel therapies to improve the function of the diaphragm and other muscles in CF patients.

2010 – Scientists show under laboratory conditions that the drug glafenine, used for pain relief, can ‘rescue’ the CFTR protein allowing it to reach the cell membrane.

Researchers find that transient administration of an immunosuppressant drug reduces the harmful immune response in mice to viral vectors. This finding may help make gene therapy a possible treatment for CF in the near future. Scientists link a decline in lung health leading to hospitalization in people with CF to the bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Researchers show that 25% of adults with CF attending clinics in Ontario are infected with transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection with the “Liverpool” Pseudomonas strain is associated with increased risk of death or lung transplantation.

Researchers demonstrate that the female hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) increases lung inflammation and suppresses immune system defences in male mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This finding may help explain the “gender gap” in CF.

Scientists find an association between a mutation in the TLR5 gene and improved health indicators, such as higher body mass index (BMI), in adults with CF. This finding could lead to new treatments specifically targeting TLR5 to reduce inflammation and lung tissue damage.
How the research began...
Bibliography
http://www.cysticfibrosis.ca/en/index.php
http://www.cff.org
Research for Cystic fibrosis began in 1960.Canada started serving communities that had cystic fibrosis.Most children didn't go to Kindergarten cause they couldn't live that longer.
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