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Transcript of Civil War
Union marches towards Richmond, VA yet they stop near Bull Run River
The Union starts pushing the Confederates back, but General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson keeps the Confederates strong.
Advantages for Each Side
- Confederates knew the Union would attack first, so most of the war would take place on their land (defense).
The South had more experienced generals.
Southern farms would supply the soldiers with food. The North had to ship their supplies.
- Most of the factories were in the North.
- The North had a larger population.
The North had twice as much Railroad Track
Throughout the Civil War the North had 2.1 million soldiers to the South's 900,000
22,000 Miles to 9,000 miles
Wait for the North to get tired.
SIGN ME UP!
On both sides, men rushed to be a part of the fight (many were very young)
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
THE BATTLE OF VICKSBURG
Vicksburg, Mississippi: Was the last major Confederate city along the Mississippi River
General Grant's army took over the city
This is considered the turning point in the war
FREDERICKSBURG & CHANCELLORSVILLE
Union General - Ambrose Burnside
Confederate General - Robert E. Lee
ARMY SIZES: UNION (134,000) CONFEDERACY (61,000)
GOAL FOR THE UNION: TAKE RICHMOND
A SOLDIER'S LIFE
Mary Edwards Walker: First female army surgeon and Congressional Medal of Honor recipient
Clara Barton - Nurse and instrumental in organizing and helping provide medical supplies. Later creates the Red Cross
Lincoln: "I never in my life felt more certain that I am doing right than I do signing this paper....If my name goes into history it will be for the this act, and my whole soul is in it."
AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN THE CIVIL WAR
After Emancipation, thousands of African-Americans joined the Union Army
Most famous African American group
THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Lee decided to march his army North and came across Union troops in Pennsylvania
90,000 Union troops and 75,000 Confederate troops started the battle
Lee orders General Pickett to lead 15,000 men and charge across an open field to attack Union General George Meade's troops
Lee Rode among the Survivors and told them "it is all my fault"
7,500 Men died at Pickett's Charge
Lee's army suffered 25,000 casualties and the Union suffered 23,000
Famous speech given by Lincoln honoring the soldiers and stating his vision for our country
THE WAR'S FINAL STAGES
General Ulysses S. Grant in put in charge of all the Union forces
Union General William Sherman
SHERMAN'S MARCH TO SEA
Sherman's march started when he burned Atlanta. He then went across Georgia towards the Atlantic Ocean.
He took food, killed people, tore up railroad lines and fields, and killed livestock
Lincoln wins re-election in 1864
MEETING AT APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE
APRIL 9, 1865
General Lee: "I would rather die a thousand deaths" than go see General Grant
TOLL OF WAR
The war cost billions and left Southern cities and farm in ruins
It freed millions of African Americans
- They also would have an advantage because they knew the land better
Union outnumbers the Confederates
Hundreds of people from Washington decided to "watch the war"
30,000 vs 22,000
The Union surrenders
Most famous battle was between Union’s MONITOR and Confederate’s MERRIMACK
War of the Ironclads
Union General Ulysses S. Grant was surprised attacked by the Confederates in Tennessee, but reorganizes and leads the Union to a victory
Battle of Shiloh
Battle of New Orleans
Union navy is able to take over the port of New Orleans and General Grant's troops take control of most of the Mississippi River
- Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s army invades the Union
* Deadliest day of the war - 26,000 Casualties
- Union General George McClellan finds out Lee's plan (spies) and force the Confederates to retreat
January 1, 1863 - Lincoln writes this document which abolished slavery
" All persons held as slaves within any state in rebellion against the U.S., shall be then, henceforward and forever free"
By the end of the war, African Americans made up 10% of the Union Army
54th Massachusetts Infantry
Served on the front lines in an attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina. They were remembered for their courage.
Stonewall Jackson dies
- Lee tells Confederates to dig trenches and secure their position
- Confederates win
- Confederate generals Lee and Jackson join up and defeat the Union
Fighting lasted 3 days
Meade only had 5,750 troops
Many Confederates die and the Union wins
Deadliest battle of the war
This is known as total war
- Grant advances and Lee (under Jefferson Davis' orders) retreats
April 7th: General Grant sends a letter to Lee stating "The result of last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance"
General Robert E. Lee surrenders to General Ulysses S. Grant.
5 days after Lee's surrender, President Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford's Theatre.
Causes of the Civil War
- Slavery in the South was a major issue that divided the country
- Abolitionists began speaking out about how morally wrong it was
- Fugitive Slave Law is passed
- Underground Railroad
- Dred Scott Case
- Senator from Illinois who spoke up about slavery
- Elected in 1860
- This causes South Carolina to secede from the Union
- A new country forms made up of Southern States
Jefferson Davis - President
- Constitution was written to guarantee citizens the right to own slaves
Capital - Richmond, VA
Start of the War
- On April 12, 1861; the first shot is fired upon Fort Sumter - this is the official start to the Civil War
- Confederates begin taking over federal forts and banks
- Fort Sumter
- This war often tore families apart
War in the East
- Lincoln places General George McClellan in charge of capturing Richmond
- Trained them for 7 months, then finally went to attack (he fails)
- He tries again a month later and fails again
The War in the West
Each side issued drafts which required men to join the military
Battle of Richmond