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Transcript of McCarthyism
Joseph Raymond McCarthy(1908-1957)
Born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, on November 15, 1908
Attended Marquette University in Milwaukee and received law degree
1936, first ran for Shawano District Attorney as a Democrat but was unsuccessful
Decided to run as Judge in 10th Judicial circuit and was youngest circuit Judge in Wisconsin
Ran for Senate in 1944, but lost
Ran again in 1946 and won (Republican)
1950 began accusations of Communist infiltration without evidence
Reelected in 1952 due to popularity
1954, was condemned by the Senate and had little power afterward
1957, died due to acute hepatitis
What He Formed
The Spread of McCarthyism
Who Was Targeted?
Anna Stockstad, Serena Tramm, Sarah Memon
McCarthy accuses 205
in the State Department of being communists on February 9, 1950
Overseas Library Program
- Claimed that over 30,000 books were written by communists and then ordered the books to be removed
suspected of promoting communism were blacklisted until attending a trial, including Walt Disney
Lawyers, union members, universities, and churches
were all investigated for communist activity
Widespread paranoia of communists in the government during atomic area
Half of Europe controlled by Joseph Stalin and Russia detonates first atomic bomb in 1949, invokes fear of nuclear attacks
The Korean Conflict on the 38th parallel where NK attempted to take over SK---> Fear of communism in SK reinforced support of McCarthy
Delivered powerful speech to Senate on February 20th, 1950 about the rise of communism and then accuses government officials, gets support of Republicans
Fed off American citizens' fear of communism in order to have a strong presence for reelection in 1952
House Un-American Activites Committee(HUAC)
was created in an effort to investigate suspicions regarding communism
Blacklisted people in the Hollywood industry for sending communist messages (Hollywood Ten)
had a list of suspected people and was used to prevent businesses from hiring
Attacked churches and clergymen
Targeted professors, made schools review material being taught
Danforth- "I have until this moment not the slightest reason to suspect that the children may be deceiving me.'"
"Proctor: 'Is it true? There be fourteen women arrested?'
Mary Warren: ''No, sir. There be thirty-nine now"(Miller, 56)
Mary Warren-"I heard the other girls screaming... but then the whole world cried spirits... I only thought I saw them but I did not." (Miller, 107)
"I have here in my hand a list of two hundred and five people that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department."
- the practice of making unfair accusations of disloyalty(esp. communist activity) without substantive evidence
After WWII citizens afraid of Soviet communism
Policy of Containment-
prevent the Soviets from expanding their influence
Gained publicity after giving the 1950 speech claiming he had names government officials working for the Soviets
House Un-American Committee(HUAC) set the foundation for McCarthyism
Crucible Connection: Arthur Miller
Congress passed Legislation:
- Made communist organizations register with the federal government; Forbade defense plants from hiring communists; Denied passports to members of communist organizations
Communist Control Act(1954)
- Punished organizations with communist ties (unions) by denying rights such as collective bargaining
What He Formed CONT.
McCarthy's influence led to the creation of several Senate committees such as:
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee(SISS)
- Created in 1950and led by Patrick McCarran to investigate laws relating to sabotage, espionage, and infiltration of people who support communists
Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigators-
Directly led by McCarthy in 1953-1954, used this committee to investigate his claims and accusations; held 169 hearings; made suspected communist names public; remains active today
1954, Miller was denied his passport by the Department of State for being a "fellow traveler"
1956 Miller stood before the House Un-American Activities Committee(HUAC) for suspected communism
Miller refused to list any names and cited the First Amendment for the right to remain silent
Was convicted of contempt of Congress
His conviction was later overturned
McCarthyism served as inspiration for The Crucible
In the play, John Proctor represents Miller since they both were innocent and refused to list names/confess
Arthur Miller was involved in McCarthy's Communist scare
Abigail manipulated everyone by provoking fear similar to McCarthy, both used these tactics to gain power over everyone. While McCarthy accused officials, celebrities, etc. of being communists, few people questioned his authority and evidence of the accused.
Arthur Miller during his trial
After McCarthy's orginal accusations, common people began to accuse their peers during the Red Scare. In
the citizens of Salem accuse their neighbors due to past conflicts over land, livestock, and the deaths of their children. As the list of the accused grew, more citizens of Salem said they saw their neighbors with the Devil, even though no one ever saw spirits.
Proctor-"Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! (Miller, 143)
Many of the suspected communists refused to answer by invoking the 5th Amendment which states "No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime..." Miller did the same by invoking the 1st Amendment. Both similar to how Proctor refused to confess.