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Globalisation of Sport: April 2013
Transcript of Globalisation of Sport: April 2013
Dr. Lisa Ann O'Keeffe
The Globalization of Sport
Flow of money around the world
Rules of Games and culture, language, customs shared between countries.
What is Globalization?
“The growing network of political, economic, cultural and social interdependencies that bind human beings together” (Maguire et al, 2002)
Workers - athletes, managers, medical staff, back room staff
Increasing movement of labour to different countries other than countries of citizenship
Tourists - Increasing likelihood of foreign holidays related to sport: watching events overseas e.g. Olympic Games, World Championships, training camps
"The movement of talent from Cuba to richer countries is sporting prostitution"
Alberto Juantorena (Former Olympic Champion
Athletes move from state to state, region to region within nations, as well as from nation to nation within and between continents. (Bale & Maguire, 1994).
Athletes seek professional opportunities around the globe.
Symbols of a new world order moving for financial reasons, better opportunities or training facilities and provisions.
Divides and unite groups; it can be seen as “war minus the shooting” or as a “community healing process” (Sugden and Bairner 2000, pp. 7-8).
Sport is seen as a powerful tool of identity formation
Sport Club Systems – Western Europe + Great Britain.
School Sport System – North America
State Sport System – Eastern Europe
These systems are constantly changing
Marketing, branding and Sponsorship:
Globalisation in regard to marketing does not equate to the homogenisation of markets
Products can be distributed globally but communication has to focus on local habits
Global Idiom: A form of International Communication
– The depiction of a country as a whole, encompassing its culture, traditions, languages and
– Devotion or pride in the interest or culture of one’s nation
– The country itself, E.g. Britain
– Regions or subsections of the country, E.g. Native American Indians, Aborigines.
Westerbeek & Smith (2003)
A symbiotic relationship?
Conversation Effect: Boardman and Hargreaves-Heap (1999)
Mega Events: Showcases for Political Ideology
Psychic income/collective morale
Investment in facilities, infrastructure, transportation etc.
Global Marketing Opportunity
Government support traditionally has been based on the notion that success in sports provides recognition, prestige and status for the sponsoring governmental unit
National teams can bring international recognition
Local teams can bring needed publicity to communities
Flow of information and images through internet, radio, TV, film, etc.
those who move to a country and stay, make a life there, may become a citizen or get married.
– those who go to a country to make money but with every intention of returning to their homeland. Usually short term, monetary gain is their motivation
- move around with the main motivation being seeing a different country and living a different lifestyle
– those who go to another country for a number of reasons but eventually return home to stay. They do not make the host country their home.
– Athletes coming from the Easter Bloc Countries, I.e. Hungary, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, etc.
– the country that the migrants go to
De-skilling of donor countries
– means that all of the skilled or talented athletes move.
– some smaller/peripheral countries may rely on other countries to help develop their young players because they have better coaches, facilities, resources etc.
Muscle Drain (Andreff, 2006)
rates of athlete migration
Energy Supply Shortage
Emerging Sport Markets
Increase in free trade agreements
Salaries: Economic and political distance between haves and have not’s.
Pulled sports away from their roots
Profile and status of elite athletes has been raised dramatically, now earning huge sums of money
No tariffs to pay: its easier to reach international markets by first exporting products in the form of visual images.
The Ultimate in Reality TV
New Innovations: 3D TV, Interactive, TIVO
Internet Television: An experience they cannot experience at the stadium.
Internet TV allows broadcasters to sell products and services in conjunction with their broadcasts, in addition to traditional advertising.
No longer a reliance on traditional TV networks.
Fan interaction like never before!
Attendance and Blackouts
Increased revenues and visibility
+ and – Impact on sport
Attempt to capitalize on potential overseas sales.
Nike will spent $140 million upgrading their overseas distribution and increasing its overseas sales staff to over 6,100 (Himelstein, 1997).
Communication opportunities for fans and companies to interact
Opportunities for smaller companies
Technology improvements for training and analysing performance.
Opens opportunities for more countries and penetration of new markets
Nanotechnology, genetic manipulation and bioengineering