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Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
Transcript of Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
Arguments Evaluation Arguments "Is this thing a good member of its class?" Ethical Arguments "Is this action right or wrong?" In such an evaluation, the writer determines the extent to which a given something possesses the qualities or standards of its class. In these arguments, the writer evaluates a given act from the perspective of some system of morality or ethics. Criteria-Match Structure
of Evaluation Arguments This thing is (is not) as good a member of its class because it meets (fails to meet) criteria A, B, and C. Developing Criteria 1. Place the thing you are evaluating in the smallest relevant category so that you don't compare apples to oranges.
2. Develop criteria for your evaluation based on the purpose of function of this category.
3. Determine the relative weight of your criteria. Ethical Arguments Ethical arguments focus on moral or ethical issues. [The arguments you produce may not persuade others to your view, but they should make others think seriously about it, and they should help you work out more clearly the reasons and warrants for your own beliefs.] Disagreements about ethical issues often stem from different systems of values that make the issue irresolvable. Major Ethical
Systems Two major systems: 1. consequences
2. principles Consequences An act is right (wrong) because it follows (violates) principles A, B, and C. Principles An act is right (wrong) because it will lead to consequences A, B, and C, which are good (bad). [When faced with an ethical issue, we must move from arguments of good or bad to arguments of right or wrong.] Consequences-Based Argument Opposing: Capital punishment is wrong because it leads to the following negative consequences:
1. The possibility of executing an innocent person
2. The possibility that a murderer who may repent and be redeemed is denied that chance
3. The excessive legal and political costs of trials and appeals
4. The unfair distribution of executions based on race and class Supporting: Capital punishment is right because it leads to the following positive consequences:
1. It may deter violent crime and slow down the rate of murder.
2. It saves the cost of lifelong imprisonment.
3. It stops criminals from committing more murders.
4. It helps grieving families reach closure. Principles-Based Argument
Opposing: The death penalty is wrong because it violates the sanctity of human life.
Supporting: Capital punishment is right because it follows the principle that punishments should be proportionate to the crime. *In either case, your duty is make clear what principle is being evoked and then to show why this principle is more important than opposing principles.