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History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations

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Transcript of History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations

History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives, and Information Organizations
Brian Barker and Kristen Weischedel
Newgrange, Bru na Boinne, Ireland
Stonehenge, England

Large structures created from materials far away
Required:
coordination and communication
knowledge of tools and locations

Yet, there was no writing.
Mesolithic Information
These first libraries were associated with temples. Many of the hosted items were temple records, therefore making these establishments serve as both libraries and archives.

The records stored in the first libraries were written with hieroglyphics on papyrus.

Egyptian Libraries (2400 BCE)
The Renaissance
How will technology continue to affect the role of librarians and what they are expected to do?

How will ownership rights and privacy be effected in the future with increased technologies?

Is an entirely digital library a realistic possibility?

How will libraries and archives deal with the rising cost of technology?

Future Points to Ponder
Mayans
10,000 BCE
1000 CE
The first book printed on Gutenberg's printing press was
The Bible
, which allowed for members outside of the priest class to read it for the first time. It was translated and widely distributed, creating a publishing industry.
Although Chinese empires are credited with inventing paper, Koreans and to a lesser extent, Tibetans, were responsible for being the first to mass produce paper during the 6th century.

It took over 500 years for paper to make it from China to Europe.
The Rosetta Stone, housed at the British Museum, has a translation of three languages upon its surface: Ancient Greek, and two types of Egyptian hieroglyphics. This was a key tool used by scholars while deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The indigenous people of Rapa Nui, more commonly referred to as Easter Island, created these giant stone statues, known as moai, between the 10th and 16th centuries.
Some critical questions to think about...
0 CE
5000 BCE
How was this information transmitted?

Who transmitted this information?

With the conquest of the Greeks, the Roman libraries gained more materials, and libraries became a status symbol.

Roman and Greek civilizations shift from the scroll to codex between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.

Library purposes shifts from private citizen libraries to a public interest.
Many people were illiterate at this time. Besides the written word, what were some other ways to disperse information?

What other methods of information expression existed at this time?
Who could access information?

What modes were accessible?

What is information?

How does our perception of information evolve?

Instructions for how to use Prezi:

Follow though the presentation using the arrows at the bottom of the screen, or your keyboard arrows (left and right).

You can click anywhere on the screen if you would like to view more information, a click will zoom into a specific spot.

How does the vehicle of information sharing change how we view information?

Does this change our priorities in regards to which information is shared?

The creation of libraries needs three conditions:

1. A centralized population
2. Economic development
3. Political stability
The earliest written records, dated from 3000 BCE, were written in Sumerian, originating from Mesopotamia.
500 CE
2500 BCE
Monastic Libraries
Mission:
Provide a place for spiritual reflection
Archive religious texts
Reproduce religious texts (sometimes secular as well)
These libraries were well established by 550 CE throughout Europe, including Switzerland, France and Great Britain.

The tablet is from ~196 BCE
Note:

These writings were often of varying quality for transcribing was used to occupy the time and doled out as a punishment on many monasteries.
Educational Libraries
Middle Stone Age
The Written Word
Cuneiform tablet
Rubin, 34
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
Rubin, 35
Rubin, 36.
First writing
The Rosetta Stone. (2010, January 23). Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/young_explorers/discover/a_closer_look-1/the_rosetta_stone.aspx
© Trustees of the British Museum
© Trustees of the British Museum
The Invention of Paper
It is said paper was created in China in approximately 105 CE, during the Han dynasty (though this fact is disputed, some archaeologists place the date closer to 100 BCE).
Institute of Paper Science and Technology at Georgia Tech. (2006, June 13). The Invention of Paper. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_invention_paper.htm
Production of Paper
Invention of Paper in China,
105 CE
Mass Production in Korea,
6th century
Tibetan Production
Spreads from China and Tibet to Central Asia and Persia
Recorded Evidence of Paper in Samarkand
Paper reaches Baghdad from Samarkand,
8th century
Paper spreads to Damascus, Eygpt and Morocco from Baghdad,
10th century CE
Paper reaches Italy and Spain (and the rest of Europe)
11th-12th century CE
The Spread of Paper:
Inception to Printing Press
Meanwhile in Europe...
Points to Ponder
Rubin, 39
Although the Incas did not have writing, they invented a method of transmitting information though the Inca trail. Messengers would carry a quipu, or knotted string with them, which aided their memory.
Quipu from Incan dynasty, 13th century
National Museum of the American Indian : Item Detail. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.americanindian.si.edu/searchcollections/item.aspx?irn=154591&catids=0&objtypeid=Indigenous Knowledge and Records|Quipu/Counting record&src=1-4
Rubin, 42
Meanwhile in the Americas...
With the new explosion of technology, Renaissance Europe provided many new tools and ideas which aided the cataloging and disbursement of information.
The Printing Press
Cataloging Advancements
By the end of the 15th century, Johann Tritheim complied the first chronological bibliography.

Cross-references appear for the first time in religious libraries.
Easter Island
A Note on African Oral History
Many African societies spread and retained information through visual and oral traditions, including dance, art, and storytelling.


If you would like to read more, we recommend:
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ahis/hd_ahis.htm
The Age of Reason
During the 16th century, Konrad Gesner published an author bibliography with a subject index in his work.

By the end of the 1500s, Andrew Mausell had complied a list of cataloging rules, including descriptions of entries and types.

Books from Europe make their way to America,
15th and 16th centuries
Coming to America
Commerce and literacy increased in the 1600s and 1700s, making books a commodity, and therefore more accessible to all classes.

Although national libraries flourished in Europe, the United States (not yet a recognized country until 1781) did not follow suite.
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
19th Century in America

Schwartz, C. (Instructor) (2014, September 18). Metadata and Cataloging. Information Organization. Lecture conducted from Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts.
Points to Ponder
The 16th and 17th centuries, in addition to being a time of innovation, were an intense period of exploration, which allowed for commerce to be established. How did this exploration affect the information needs of the "discovered" peoples?
Boston Public Library
The Anthenaeum
Library of Congress and Jefferson
The Smithsonian Institution
In the 1800s, the creation of libraries, library groups and museums led to a rapid increase of information accessibility. Let's take a look at a few of these.
A Note on Aboriginal Dream Traditions
Twentieth Century in America
Memex
Invention of Paper,
105 CE
Points to Ponder
Papyrus, like many ancient prints, disintegrates easily. What consequences does this have on ancient information and our perceptions of it?
Sources
Institute of Paper Science and Technology at Georgia Tech. (2006, June 13). The Invention of Paper. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_invention_paper.htm
Library to Note
The Great Library of Alexandria, decreed in 332 BCE, is the best known library of the ancient world.

Alexander the Great, namesake of Alexandria, died before the library was built, so Ptolemy, his successor in Egypt, built the library. This library collected works from all over the world, and only librarians were allowed to access them for patrons. The library also hosted workshops, including medical ones, for their patrons. The library of Alexandria is estimated to have held 500,000 works.

Unfortunately, this library burnt, along with the city in 47 BCE. If you would like to learn more about the library, here is a link to the History channel's episode on the library:
Rubin, 39
Roman libraries flourish
The Mayan Empire ruled between 300 and 900 CE in Mesoamerica.

The Mayans had sophisticated writing and calendar system. Their calendar system has proved accurate even to this day.
Maya. (2010, January 23). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/cultures/the_americas/maya.aspx
Mayan Empire
Byzantine and Muslim Libraries
Under Constantine, scholarly libraries flourished, including the Imperial Library.

The muslim empire focused around religious scholarly work with the Koran, though they also preserved many texts from outside the empire, (such as Greek and Persian texts) which enabled future scholars to study the era.
The creation of the Imperial Library,
Constantinople, 353 CE
Muslim Empire
Rubin, 40-41.
Rubin, 40-41
Cathedrals served as educational centers during the late middle ages (800 CE- 1200 CE), when there was an increased emphasis on learning.

During this time, intellectual aristocracy was on the rise, and intellectual opportunities became available outside of the church.
Rubin, 42-43
Late Middle Ages
Bortolot, Alexander Ives. "Ways of Recording African History". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ahis/hd_ahis.htm (October 2003)
Rubin, 44-45
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
Between 1550 and 1600, major strides in libraries and cataloging are developed, leading to the establishment of modern libraries. These libraries put an emphasis on creating a permanent collection, which cataloging tools enabled librarians to complete.
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
Developments in Cataloging
Cataloging in the 17th century
Cataloging had become commonplace by the 1600s. In fact, Thomas Bodley rebuilt Oxford University's library (destroyed in a fire) using cataloging records. This practice is still used today to recreate destroyed collections.
The Boston Library was the first public library in the United States, created in 1848.

In spite of its seemingly noble intentions, elitists at the time saw the library as a way to maintain social stratification, for these financial benefactors influenced which materials were available at the library.
Rubin, 55-59 and History and Description. The Boston Public Library. Boston Public Library, n.d. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.bpl.org/general/history.htm.
The Library of Congress, created in 1800, is not a national library but, as its name suggests, a library for congress. After the library burnt in the war of 1812, Jefferson sold his personal library to the Library of Congress, so they could rebuild their materials. In turn the Library of Congress inherited Jefferson's classification system.
History of the Library. (2000, January 1). Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.loc.gov/about/history-of-the-library/
James Smithson donated his entire estate, totaling over half a million dollars, to create the Smithsonian Institute. After years of political debate, the institution was created in 1846. The Smithsonian is now the largest museum complex in the world.
Introduction. The Smithsonian Institution. From Smithson to Smithsonian: The Birth of an Institution. (1998). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Smithson-to-Smithsonian/intro.html
The Boston Anthenaeum was founded in 1807. It was known as one of the first social libraries because it encouraged the community to come together in a social club setting.
The History of Libraries Through the Ages - Zen College Life. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/
American Library Association
(ALA)
The American Library Association was founded in 1876 at a conference in Philadelphia. ALA was created to "provide leadership for the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all". It is now the largest library association in the world.
The Dewey Decimal System
Melvil Dewey created the Dewey System in 1876. It has undergone over 20 revisions since its inception, but most of these revisions have been the result of changes in technologies that have required updates to libraries.
The History of Libraries Through the Ages - Zen College Life. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/
Similar to African oral history, the Aboriginal, or indigenous peoples of Australia, have a variety of cultural traditions involving the passing down of history from generation to generation through storytelling. The Aboriginals are also unique in their belief that "dreaming is history."

For more information visit: http://www.aboriginalheritage.org/history/history/
A Brief Aboriginal History. (2006, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.aboriginalheritage.org/history/history/
Card Catalogs
Card catalogs got their start in 1800s when Charles Folsom of the Boston Athenaeum suggested using a series of cards, linked together with strings, to help keep order to the collection of books found in libraries.

Card catalogs further developed in 1860 by John Langdon Sibley a Harvard librarian proposed placing cards between two wooden blocks. Over the years, the cards were moved into cabinets and became the standard format for locating books.

The History of Libraries Through the Ages - Zen College Life. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/
Shared Cataloging
In 1901 the Library of Congress distributes catalog cards, allowing for shared cataloging. Although libraries edit records for their specific collections, Library of Congress cataloging is still considered the gold standard in the US today.
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014. and
Schwartz, C. (Instructor) (2014, September 18). Metadata and Cataloging. Information Organization. Lecture conducted from Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts.
Andrew Carnegie built his first library in the U.S in 1889 in Braddock Pennsylvania and by 1929 he had funded the construction of 1,689 libraries in the U.S, with 1,000 more in other countries.

In fact between the years of 1886 and 1919, Andrew Carnegie donated 56 million dollars towards libraries, often public libraries.
Andrew Carnegie and American Libraries
Rubin, 60 and The History of Libraries Through the Ages - Zen College Life. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/
Paul Otlet
He is considered the father of information science, which he called "documentation." He created the Universal Decimal Classification, which is a form of faceted classification, which enabled items to be categorized in multiple ways.

In 1907 he co-founded with Henri LaFountaine what is now the Union of International Associations (located in Brussels).
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
American Archives
The United States National Archives (now called the National Archives and Records Administration) were created in 1934. Starting in one building, there are now over 40 locations of the NARA in the United States.

The Society of American Archivists (SAA) was formed shortly afterward, in 1936. Their mission was "to promote sound principles of archival economy and to facilitate cooperation among archivists and archival agencies".
National Archives History. (n.d.). National Archives. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/
An Introduction to SAA. (n.d.). Society of American Archivists. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www2.archivists.org/about/introduction-to-saa
Collaboration and cooperation became standardized between libraries, allowing for a great number of advancements in the information field.

However, also at this time, Cutter's classification system (which added subject classifications) began to fall out of favor for some less complex methods of cataloging. There is still debate today on whether this was beneficial or detrimental to the profession.
The Road to Digitization
The ARPANET was a network of computers that was developed in 1969, and became the basis for the internet. It was created by the U.S Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and sponsored by the Department of Defense.

The first email was sent in 1971 using the ARPANET, although the network was merely a small group of connected computers.
ARPANET
Points to Ponder
What sort of conveniences did the creation of APARNET and Web 2.0 bring to the information field?

Are pay-for-use sites aiding or hindering access to information? Who for?
Drawbacks to Digital Technology
Technology is ever-changing, articles and websites can change in a moments notice, even disappear forever. These changes occur so rapidly that one technology replaces another, making it obsolete (remember floppy discs anyone?) This constant upgrading of materials and technologies is costly for libraries as well as other information institutions.

In spite of these technological advances, multiple layers of preservation are needed. For instance, a flash drive needs to be physically intact, and the material on the device needs to be preserved to remain accessible. There are many archives that have VHS or film reels that are physically preserved but the information on them cannot be read due to erosion over time. This poses a problem while attempting to digitize documents, for some items are too fragile to digitize.

With all this information accessible in an instant, copyright is another concern. Images in particular are property of those who took the picture, so reproducing images is often illegal (save for educational purposes in many cases).
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
The creation of the Rosetta Stone,
196 BCE
Paper reaches Japan
~610 CE
(2012). Library of Alexandria [Television series episode]. In
Ancient Eygpt
. The History Channel.
Rapa Nui National Park. (1992). Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/715
(2012). Library of Alexandria [Television series episode]. In Ancient Eygpt. The History Channel.

(2014). "Happy find; A history of paper." The Economist, 2014. 87. Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2014).

[Jasmine Imprint]. (2013, December 9.) The Evolution of Libraries. [video file] Retrieved September 18, 2014 from https:/ /www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiXYR35FLfw

A Brief Aboriginal History. (2006, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.aboriginalheritage.org/history/history/

About ALA. (n.d.). American Library Association. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.ala.org/aboutala/

A.H. Jocelyn (History of the Processes of Manufacture 1864) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Blair, James (Photographer). (2008).
Easter Island Heads
[Photograph]. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/ancient/images/sw/easter-island-head-289121-sw.jpg

Bortolot, Alexander Ives. "Ways of Recording African History". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ahis/hd_ahis.htm (October 2003)

Coyle, K. (2010). Library Data in the Web World. RDA vocabularies for a twenty-first-century data environment (pp. 5-11). Chicago, IL: ALATechSource.

Introduction. The Smithsonian Institution. From Smithson to Smithsonian: The Birth of an Institution. (1998, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Smithson-to-Smithsonian/intro.html

History and Description. The Boston Public Library. Boston Public Library, n.d. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.bpl.org/general/history.htm.

History of the Library. Library of Congress. (2000). Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.loc.gov/about/history-of-the-library/

Institute of Paper Science and Technology at Georgia Tech. (2006, June 13). The Invention of Paper. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_invention_paper.htm

Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.

Maya. (2010, January 23). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/cultures/the_americas/maya.aspx

National Archives History. (n.d.). National Archives. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/

An Introduction to SAA. (n.d.). Society of American Archivists. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www2.archivists.org/about/introduction-to-saa

National Museum of the American Indian : Item Detail. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.americanindian.si.edu/searchcollections/item.aspx?irn=154591&catids=0&objtypeid=Indigenous Knowledge and Records|Quipu/Counting record&src=1-4

Rapa Nui National Park. (1992, January 1). Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/715

Rouse, M. (2000). ARPANET. What is ?. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/ARPANET

Rubin, R. (2004). Foundations of library and information science (2nd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

Schwartz, C. (Instructor) (2014, September 18). Metadata and Cataloging. Information Organization. Lecture conducted from Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts.

Society of American Archivists. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www2.archivists.org/about/introduction-to-saa

Theimer, K. (2010). Web 2.0: Tools and Strategies for Archives and Local History Collections. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

The Rosetta Stone. (2010, January 23). Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/young_explorers/discover/a_closer_look-1/the_rosetta_stone.aspx

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology (Reproducer). (n.d.). Sumerian Cuneiform tablet [Photograph]. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from: http://forces.si.edu/soils/images/media/library_038_lg.jpg

Vannevar Bush and Memex cont.... (n.d.). The World Wide Web, beginning and now. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mattkaz/history/meme
The Renaissance
1500 CE
1900 CE
About ALA. (n.d.). American Library Association. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.ala.org/aboutala/
Meanwhile Across the Pond...
In 1837, Anthony Panizzi of the British Museum in London utilized the "Code Panizzi," which he also invented. The code consists of 91 concepts, or different classifications for cataloging. This was the birth of modern cataloging as we know it.
Coyle, 6-7
The Creation of Library of Congress, 1800
With World War II, the technology sector rapidly increased creating new innovations and technologies available to information science professionals.

These technologies have allowed institutions to put their collections online, digitize entire collections, which enables research as well as advertisement. This digitization also allows members to access materials from outside the physical confines of establishments, and librarians to more efficiently search articles with the help of databases such as EBSCO.

Let's examine how these technologies became possible as well as their benefits and costs.

Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
Kimball, M. (2013). History: Origins and Development of Libraries, Archives and Information Organizations [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://moodle.simmons.edu/course/view.php?id=6837 on September 22, 2014.
The Evolution of Libraries
[Jasmine Imprint]. (2013, December 9.) The Evolution of Libraries. [video file] Retrieved September 18, 2014 from https:/ /www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiXYR35FLfw
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 developed as an interactive rather than passive approach to the internet. Web 2.0 allows for multiple parties to interact simultaneously via a variety of platforms. Facebook, twitter, online chats and wikis are examples of Web 2.0.

This type of technology allows for higher levels of connectivity between online persons, allowing for a greater sense of community and greater access to resources and information.
Toys and Games in Libraries
The Founding of the
Boston Public Library, 1848
The Library of Congress introduces shared cataloging, 1901
Memex is considered a precursor to the internet. Envisioned by Vannevar Bush in 1945, Memex was proposed to store and catalog information. Bush saw this as an extension of human thinking capabilities, allowing academics to more easily share ideas. The items stored in Memex (which was indeed never physically created) could be searched and like items were linked together, allowing for more fruitful results.
Vannevar Bush and Memex cont.... (n.d.). The World Wide Web, beginning and now. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mattkaz/history/meme
Theimer, 75-179
Nicholson, S. (2013). Playing in the Past: A History of Games, Toys, and Puzzles in North American Libraries.
Library Quarterly
,
83
(4), 341-361.
Asides from educational purposes, libraries have also served as a source of recreation, providing both recreational activities and games on site.

Toys and games were used to engage children as well as other patrons and thus build community development, particularly at public libraries. These were particularly beneficial during times of great economic hardship, when public sources were dwindling. In fact, during the Great Depression, cash prizes were offered to winners of puzzles and research contests.

These toys and games have changed with technological advancements, progressing from simple board games such as chess and checkers to computer based games, such as video or computer games.

If you would like to read more, we would recommend:
Scott Nicholson's article "Playing in the Past: A History of Games, Toys and Puzzles in North American Libraries"
APARNET is created in 1969,
Sends it's first email in 1971
The Great Depression
Schwartz, C. (Instructor) (2014, September 18). Metadata and Cataloging. Information Organization. Lecture conducted from Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts.
Rouse, M. (2000). ARPANET. What is ?. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/ARPANET
The creation of the
Great Library of Alexandria,
332 BCE
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