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Nationalism Threatens Old Empires

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Lindsay MacIntyre

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Nationalism Threatens Old Empires

Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Chapter 22.4
By Nell Valle, Jordan Bricknell, Lindsay MacIntyre, Jeff Taylor-Chang
The Hapsburg Empire
The Ottoman Empire
The Beginning of the End
The "Sick Man of Europe"
The Powder Keg of Europe
Ethnic Groups in the Hapsburg Empire
Slavs and everyone else-
almost 50%
Hungarians & Italians-
about 25%
less than 25%
Austria-Hungary Government
Ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs
Francis Joseph as the Ruler
w/ own minister
w/ own minister
Attempt to grant self government to the Slavs
Francis Joseph announced that he would like to let the majority Slav population govern themselves
German and Hungarian politicians opposed this idea, so it didn't go through.
The Dual Monarchy
Although Ferenc Deák aided in establishing the Dual Monarchy, Francis Joseph also had to agree to be partners with Hungary.
Francis Joseph = ruler for both nations.
The new name for the empire was Austria-Hungary, and the German names were Österreich-Ungarn, Österreichisch-Ungarisches Reich, Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, or Doppelmonarchie
New Constitution
Francis Joseph created this which set up the legislature
Made after Austria was defeated by France and Sardinia
Legislature was mainly composed of German-speaking Austrians; this upset nationalists such as Hungarians.
Francis Joseph and Reforms
Austrian monarch who inherited the Hapsburg throne when he was 18
To strengthen the government, he made some limited reforms and a new constitution
different groups wanted independence
ethnicities other than the Turks didn't want to be ruled by Turkish sultan
Turks considered the Ottoman Empire theirs
weak as a result
Other Groups
So why are they actually fighting?
We don't wanna be part of the Ottoman Empire!
Well we don't want you here! The Ottoman Empire is ours!
pride of their own culture and people
started by Enlightenment principles
fought for natural rights
wanted nation-states: independent countries that consisted of people and rulers/leaders of the same nationality
fighting broke out
people determined to reach their goals
began with Southern Greece gaining independence
spread to others
started by nationalist leaders
More Revolution
There was a series of revolutions and counter-revolutions. The Slavic groups were some of the less violent revolutionaries
Ferenc Deák

Hungarian Politician who helped propose and form the Austrian-Hungarian Dual-Monarchy.
Hungarian Minister of Justice
Was known as the "Wise Man of the Nation"
His popular article "Easter Article" of April 16, 1965 described Hungary's conditions
helped lead to the compromise
The compromise of the Dual Monarchy included...

Why People Revolted
Slavic Groups, like Czechs in Bohemia, weren't in favor
- The new government only pleased the Hungarians

Slavs united to reach their goal, insisting that "only through liberty, equality, and fraternal solidity" would be the solution to problems with the government
The national anarchy and turmoil caused the nation
political problems
social problems
This made it extremely difficult for Austria-Hungary to run an efficient government
Hungarians welcomed the compromise because it gave a generous amount of leverage for them to govern themselves
- This was something that Francis Joseph's reforms didn't satisfy
(Especially in the early 1900s)
Ruler appointed prime ministers and officials in the cabinet
After noticing the growing weakness of the Ottoman Empire, the European powers fought pettily to divide up the land. General
, and
1400s: millet system - gave nationalities and religions ability to create their own rights and rule themselves
generally satisfied population
nations encouraged by European powers to fight for independence
"Everyone else" included:
European Powers
People of Ottoman Empire
I'm happy!
No, you're not!
Oh, ok...
Change for Austria
Conservative goals were created against the liberals
By Francis I & foreign minister, Metternich
ex. the word "constitution" forbidden from being printed in newspapers
family motto was "to rule and change nothing"
In the beginning, Austria's industrial development was limited
Factories started developing
had similar issues as other countries did regarding industrial life
Well, if Greece was successful, maybe I can be too!...
Other Nationalities
Nationalists Revolt
At first, nationalistic demands for more independence were ignored
As soon as revolts sprung up, the government crushed them
I'm wearing gray, so I'll only follow people in gray.
I'm wearing blue, so I'll only follow people in blue.
After WWI, the Ottoman Empire split into the Middle East nations we know of today.
too much money spent on lavish court
death of Suleiman in ancient Ottoman Empire
focused on expansion; hard to have central control
revolts within empire and army led by Janissaries
unable to keep up with development of European powers
Works Cited
Additional Research:
Aretin, Karl Otmar Baron Von. "Franz Joseph (emperor of
Austria-Hungary)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2014.

"Austria." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
2014. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/109735#33362.toc>.

"Austria-Hungary." Britannica School. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/11340>.

Butler, Chris. "FC49: The decline of the Ottoman Empire."
The Flow of History. flowofhistory.com, n.d. Web. 10 Apr 2014. <http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/asia/6/FC49>.

"Ferenc Deak". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Apr. 2014 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/154341/Ferenc-Deak>.

"Firstworldwar.com." First World War.com. Michael Duffy,
n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.

"Global History." World Wars. n. page. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.

powder keg. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete &
Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from Dictionary.com website:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/powder keg

"The Decline of the Ottoman Empire: Part 3
Nationalism."Lost Islamic Hitory. n. page. Web. 10 Apr. 2014. <http://lostislamichistory.com/the-decline-of-the-ottoman-empire-part-3-nationalism/>.

Ottoman Empire
Image Sources:


Quiz time!
Why did the people revolt in the Hapsburg Empire?
a. They felt the government was cheating them economically
b. They were nationalists who wanted more individuality
c. The majority of the population was experiencing food shortages
d. The Slavic Groups were oppressing the Austrians
According to dictionary.com, a
powder keg
is “a small, metal, barrel like container for gunpowder or
powder” or “a
potentially dangerous
situation, especially one involving
violent repercussions
Ottoman Empire

b. They were nationalists who wanted more individuality
Once Austria was defeated by ______ and ________, Francis Joseph sought out to make reforms.
Fill In
Answer: France, Sardinia
Discuss w/ your group
How did Ferenc Deák influence Austria-Hungary Power?
Make sure you covered:
helped to compromise of Dual Monarchy
his article “Easter Article” of April 16, 1965 about Hungary's conditions
His unimpeachable integrity, unvarying good sense, and insightful contribution of law had made him one of the most respectable figures in Hungary
What was the first nation to become independent in the Ottoman Empire?
Answer: Southern Greece
The Balkans had a nickname because of their unstable state. They were called the ______ ___ of Europe.
What were some characteristics of the Dual-Monarchy? Be sure to include how Austria and Hungary differed and what they shared.
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Ottoman decline?
Discuss this:
a. hard to have central control due to expansion
b. spending on lavish court
c. strikes of industrial workers
d. falling behind other European nations
Fill In-
Answer: c. strikes of industrial workers
______ ____ was a Hungarian Politician
who helped establish the Dual Monarchy.
Answer: Ferenc Deák
Answer: Powder Keg
Short Answer
Give at least 4 of the ethnic groups of the
Hapsburg Empire. Then, give at least two
events or things the government did that encouraged their revolutions. Try to be as specific as possible!
Good Job!
Quick Discussion-

What were the mixed opinions of the People of Austria/Hungary regarding the Dual-Monarchy?

Tell how the...
a.) Hungarians felt about it.
b.) majority of other ethnic groups felt about it.
What did this lead to?
When other nations realized that the Ottoman Empire was weakening, what did they do?

They began to fight and divide the land among themselves.
Why were Austrians the only group that was satisfied by the legislature described in the new constitution of the Hapsburg Empire?

The legislature was only made up of German-speaking Austrians.
Contributions to unstable conditions...
Results of Unstable Conditions...
competitiveness of other European nations over land
Slavic people wanted to be free from oppression
extreme tension: When there weren't large-scale wars occurring, people were fighting among themselves.

German-speaking Austrians, Slavic Groups (Czechs, Slavs, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, Slovens), Hungarians, Italians

1. Francis Joseph's reforms (upset the Hungarians who wanted to be separate)
2. New constitution (that favored German-speaking Austrians)
3. Dual Monarchy (upset nationalists)
once Serbia became independent, they wanted to unite with Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina was ruled by Austria-Hungary, who was allies with Germany
Serbia was allies with Russia, who was allies with France
on a visit to Bosnia and Herzegovina, the archduke of Austria was assassinated
the complex web of alliances meant that they all declared war on each other
... and the 'Powder Keg' had exploded after all.

Under Dual Monarchy, Austria and Hungary were separate states with their own Parliament and constitution. However, they shared a ruler (Francis Joseph), ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs.

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