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Vanessa Vilcin

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of DNA

Rosalind Franklin:
DNA Replication
1. Helicase unwinds the parental strand of DNA which creates the replication fork
DNA transcribes the protein through protein synthesis
That certain protein codes for a certain function in the cell
That protein can build a cells structures as well
By regulating the order of a.a. in protein molecule, DNA controls cell activity
DNA + Cell Control
DNA controls the cell through protein synthesis and enzyme production which controls cell activity and cell division
Enzymes and Proteins
DNA - Concept Map
She studied the structure of DNA using X-ray crystallography.
Determined the shape of the molecule as a helix.

Watson and Crick
The unwinding happens in places of the chain which are rich in A-T nucleotides. The point where the unwinding begins is referred to as the "origin of replication"
2. Single-strand binding proteins stabilize the two strands
By: Alexia, Ashley, Vanessa, and Toby
3. DNA polymerase III continuously synthesizes the leading strand in the 5' to 3' direction
4. RNA primase adds RNA primer to the lagging strand of DNA. The lagging strand has to be synthesized in fragments in the 3' to 5' direction. These fragments are called Okazaki fragments
5. DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to the RNA primer on the lagging strand.
6. DNA polymerase I reads the fragments and removes RNA primer. The primer is replaced with DNA nucleotides.
7. DNA ligase joins okazaki fragments by forming a bond between their free ends
Erwin Chargaff
Found a regularity in the ratios of nucleotide bases within species and noted the equivalency between A and T base ratios and G and C ratios.
Then became the Chargaff's rules.
Mendel and Morgan
Hershey and Chase
DNA control thru protein synthesis
DNA controls enzyme production
DNA exerts its control through enzymes
Enzymes determines what reactions take place and their funtions
DNA controls what type of cell is formed...
...and what type of organism is produced
Muscle cell
Blood cell
Nerve cell
The shape of DNA was figured out with a model. Knowing that the bases were hydrophobic they placed the bases on inside of the helix. Not allowing the aqueous solution around it distrub the bases or become an issue.
Answered the question whether DNA or Proteins are responsible for programing a cell.
Tested this in 1952 radioactive sulfur and phosphorus to trace the fates of proteins and DNA, in the infected bacterial cells.
Found out DNA is responsible for programing the cells.
DNA can control a cell's life cycle
Protein synthesis or denaturing
DNA replication or not
Enzyme production/activation or lack thereof

DNA can control expression
gene expression
gene regulation
Were a key factor in determining the identity of the genetic material in the 1940s saying that genes were located in the chromosomes.
Which later lead to more studies on the role of DNA in hereditary and looking farther than Pea plants.
Finding how DNA even begins to work.
it's Discovery
We aren't talking peas any more.
Helicase uses energy from ATP to break the hydrogen bonds that hold the DNA base pairs together. Its allows the two parental strands of DNA to unwind and form two replication forks.
Single Stranded Binding protein
SSB proteins react with and stabilize the separated, single stranded sections of the DNA molecule.
The primase copies the DNA template strand by making an RNA strand complementary to it. It also synthesizes a short RNA primer in the 5' 3' direction
DNA Polymerase III
DNA polymerase III begins synthesizing DNA in the 5' 3' direction beginning at the 3' end of every RNA primer.
DNA Polymerase I
DNA Polymerase I engages the separated portion of the molecule and initiates the process of replication. It is also involved in the removal of RNA primase in the processing of DNA after replication. DNA polymerase I also fills in the gaps by making DNA, beginning at the 3' end of the neighboring Okazaki fragments.
DNA Ligase
DNA ligase seals the gaps between Okazaki fragments making them continuous strands of DNA. It covalently closes gaps into double stranded.
The enzyme relaxes DNA from its super coiled nature.
Full transcript