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The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive Strategies

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Jennifer Keller

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive Strategies

The Use of Scaffolds for Teaching Higher Level Cognitive Strategies In your own words how would you define scaffolds and higher-level cognitive strategies? What is Scaffolding? Scaffolding is support given to students to allow them to grow in independence as learners Concrete Prompts (procedural facilitators)
Modeling
Thinking Aloud
Anticipating Errors
Providing Expert Models
Cues Examples of Scaffolds Heuristic Strategy
Used for Teaching Higher-Level Cognitive Skills
Conditioned Application Characteristics of Scaffolding? This reading corresponds with Cluster 2, Module 3: Three Questions across Theories and Cluster 2, Module 6: Vygotsky: What can we learn? Cluster 2, Module 3 The reading suggests that instead of a discontinuity there is, in fact a continuum from explicit skills to cognitive strategies.
This reading relates to the text by suggesting that learning is a continuum, a quantitative change, that increases steadily.
Using the Example from the text, Rosenshine and Meister suggest that learning is like walking up a ramp to go higher. They believe that learners need to be supported by teachers, and with this support, learners will reach a higher level of skill and learning, thus going up the ramp. Like in the reading, the text gives three different context's for learning. The reading describes each as teacher-guided practice, reciprocal teaching, and group work. The books explains each one as such:
Imitative Learning, where one person tries to imitate the other (teacher-guided practice).
Instructed learning, where learners internalize the instructions of the teacher and use these to self-regulate (Reciprocal Teaching).
Collaborative Learning, where a group of peers strive to understand each other and learning occurs in the process (Group work).
These ideas, and even the main idea behind scaffolding, comes from Vyogtsky's theory and idea's that a child is not alone in the world learning the cognitive operations. He believe that family members, teachers and peers assist in this discovery.
The people who coined the term scaffolding (Wood, Bruner, and Ross) were talking about how teacher set-up learning environments. Vygotsky's theory implied a far more dynamic exchange between students and teacher that would support students in parts of the task they couldn't do alone. Cluster 2, Module 6 What other variables can affect the scaffold method in group activities teaching higher-level cognitive strategies? What is your thought about inquiry-base teaching and how does it relate to higher-level cognitive strategies and scaffolds? Use of Scaffolds
-review of 50 studies shows success of scaffolds in teaching cognitive strategies
-article presents evidence of success in different studies
"Scaffolds are forms of support provided by the teacher(or another student) to help students bridge the gap between their current abilities and the intended goal" Methods of Scaffolding
-Concrete prompts
-"thinking-aloud"
-collaborative social dialogue Important to Remember: -Cue cards are more about applying the prompt, then simply remembering
-anticipate and discuss potential errors
-providing feedback
increase responsibility and difficulty
-independent practice
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