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Copy of Copy of Music for the Future
Justin Merrickon 23 July 2013
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Music for the Future
History of Indonesian Music and It's Industry
History of Indonesian Music
Period before the entry of Hindu-Buddhist influence
At this time, the music is used as part of a public ritual activities. In some groups, the sounds generated from a limb or a particular instrument is believed to have magical powers. Instrument or instruments used are generally derived from natural surroundings.
The period after the entry of Hindu-Buddhist influences
At this time, the music developed especially in the area Jawa.Pada palace at the time, the music is not only used as part of a ritual, but also in activities as a means of entertainment keistanaan royal guests . Music is evolving palace gamelan music. Gamelan music consists of 5 groups, ie groups balungan, blimbingan groups, group pencon, drum groups, and complementary groups.
The period after the entry of the influence of Islam
Music at this time if the Arab traders introduced. Musical instruments they use a lute and tambourine. Of the process that later appeared orchestra-orchestral stringed instruments in Indonesia until now.
The entry of Western nations to Indonesia also brought a major influence in the development of Indonesian music. The newcomer is also introducing a variety of musical instruments from their country. Such as the violin, cello (cello), guitar, flute (flute), and ukulele. They also bring the system in various works solmisasi song. At this time Indonesia has developed modern music. At this time the Indonesian musicians create music offerings in the form of a blend of western music with the music of Indonesia. Serving the music that became known as keroncong music.
N o w a d a y s
Along with the inclusion of electronic media in Indonesia, also enter various types of western music, such as pop, jazz, blues, rock, R & B and country music of India was introduced through which a lot of his films. Of this development, there was a mix of foreign music to Indonesian music. Indian music is also combined with Malay music which then produce the kind of music dangdut. Thus, there was a variety of Indonesian musicians homage to pop, jazz, blues, rock, and R & B. Develops the kind of music that combines elements of regionalism Indonesia with elements of western music, especially musical instruments. This type of music is often referred to ethnic music.
According to Bens Leo (Newsmusik, 04/2000), the history of the recording industry in Indonesia came from two places: Lokananta in Surakarta and Rhythm in Menteng Jakarta. Lokananta is owned by the government, and gave birth to folk songs. While rhythm, delivered many songs entertainment. Names like Rachmat Kartolo, Nien Lesmana, until Patty Sisters ever recorded there, which was originally just a small studio in a garage in Menteng, Central Jakarta. Recording the events that occurred at the end of the 1950s until well into the 1960s.
Indonesian Communication Systems
Citra Ayu Maharani
Ayu Wanda Wishesa
By the early 1970s, in the area of South Jakarta City Bandengan, Dick Tamimi Dimita set up a recording studio. The recording studio also was the pioneer recording pop songs, because in this place famous names Koes Brothers, Panbers, Dara Puspita, Rasela, was born. Dimita uniqueness, recordings had to stop because there was a train passing.
History of Indonesian Music Industry
Beyond the cultural roots of traditional Indonesian music that has been formed over hundreds of years, in the twentieth century, changes in recording technology and Western-style marketing practices affect patterns of production and consumption of music in Indonesia. According to Sen and Hill (2001:194-195), a jukebox musical instruments made in America is imported into the Dutch East Indies in the early 1900s. At that time, according to historical records, there are three Chinese-owned record companies, two of which are located in Batavia and one in Surabaya.
In 1951, a company called IRAMA native began producing phonograph records. In 1954 the record company REMACO and DIMITA also do the same. Lokananta, the state-owned record company founded in Solo in 1955 soon dominate the recording industry in the country and focuses on the music of Java.
Dated August 17, 1959 when President Sukarno read the speech Political Manifesto, urging young people to resist the culture of the countries Necolim (Neo-Colonialism and Imperialism Western), including Western-style music that is considered not good. This gave rise to growing criticism of Indonesian pop music a more nationalistic.
Political changes of the Old Order to the New Order 1965-1966 reopen the Indonesian music market for Western products and encourage the growth of a diverse group of new pop band. The songs that were previously banned pop music combined with the flow of them. The songs from bands such as Rolling Stone West and Deep Purple, or from Indonesia such as Rollies God Bless and continually played at amateur radio stations and rock music concerts in various cities in Indonesia are always filled with spectators.
In the 1990s the Indonesian music industry triumphed in Southeast Asia. According to data collected by Sen and Hill (2001: 199) from Euromonitor, International Marketing Data and Statistics (1997), including a small Indonesian music industry in the world, but considered the largest in Southeast Asia. Official figures from 1995 (not including pirated) show that total retail recorded music in Indonesia reached nearly U.S. $ 290 million, less than U.S. $ 12,880 million in U.S. sales.
About Lokananta Studio
To create a love for the music of Indonesia, Sukarno encourage creativity by establishing Lokananta musicians. A state record companies documenting and disseminating Indonesian music to different areas. Sukarno's anti-Western policy has led to the dominance of Indonesian language songs and folk songs in the country.
Dynamics of Indonesian Music Industry
Soeharto era, intentional or not, has also continued to Indonesian-ness through the music continued. In the Soeharto era Indonesia's music industry is growing. Suharto did not issue anti-western policies as did Sukarno, but through policies that establish TVRI as the only TV station in Indonesia, has been keeping the music industry Indonesian luck. Luck is caused TVRI broadcast only music of Indonesia. TVRI is the most effective medium to advertise, in secret, Indonesian music to remote regions.
National roots music that has been instilled by Soekarno similar to what happened in South Korea. In the 1960-1970's the South Korean government is also doing the same policies as Soekarno policy. The difference, in Indonesia bans are imposed when Western culture has not entered an intense, while in South Korea bans are imposed when foreign music has been intense since the 1950s. The South Korean government in the 1960s and 1970s, considered that the younger generation has been affected by an unhealthy culture, such as the use of mini skirts and hairstyles westernized Western, and especially singing unhealthy.
Steps taken by the Old Order and the South Korean government to protect its culture have produced something similar as well as Indonesia and South Korea both have strong cultural roots. However, we do not like South Korea which has worldwide through its K-pop. Through its strong, supported by good management, and government support, South Korea has successfully climbed the world music industry. It certainly is not luck, but hard work and smarts to read the market.
When linked with the issue of "Indonesian music industry apocalypse" which is marked by the decline in sales of national records, actually only shows a shift and change course. Shift occurs from the national to the local. The emergence of indie labels in various regions in Indonesia, which has a market not only in the local community but to foreign countries. Indie label here not only be interpreted as a certain musical group, but all music groups, including local-language pop music and traditional music.
The emergence of local private television in various areas have also fertilize the music industry in the area. Local private television in London certainly always require Sundanese songs, singers and local bands. Local private tv in Bali featuring local artists such as WiDi Widiane or Lolot, as well as J-TV in East Java Sony Joss be the star there. The emergence of locality may be one reason why the national album sales declined. However, in the lan side has shown any activity in the area recording industry sales figures are not recorded.
Last decade, the music industry and recording the presence of colored branches Indonesia BMG, Universal, EMI, Warner Music and Sony Music Indonesia, five world-class music industry. Five giant getting roughly 40-50 per cent of the turnover of the recording industry in Indonesia.
Indonesian Music Genres
Indonesian Traditional Music
is music that lives in the community for generations, maintained as a means of entertainment. The three components that influence each of these artists, the music itself and the audience.
In general, the function of music for the people of Indonesia, among others, as a means or
media ritual, media entertainment, media self-expression, communication media, dance accompaniment, and economic means.
Means cultural ceremony (ritual)
Indonesian music, usually closely related to the death ceremonies, marriages, births, and religious and state ceremonies. In some areas, the sound produced by a particular instrument or device was believed to have magical powers. Therefore, as the instrument is used as a means of community cultural activities.
In this case, music is one way to eliminate boredom from daily routine, as well as recreational facilities and a meeting with other residents. Indonesian people are generally very enthusiastic in watching the musical performances. If there is live music in their area, they would flock-bondongmendatangi place to watch the show.
For artists (both songwriters and music players), music is a medium to express themselves. Through music, they actualize her potential. Through music anyway, they express feelings, thoughts, ideas, and ideals of self, society, God, and the world.
In some places in Indonesia, certain sounds that have particular meaning for members of community groups. Generally, the sounds that have a certain rhythmic pattern, and a sign for the people of such events or activities. Tools commonly used in Indonesian society is gong, drum in the mosque, and the bells in the church.
In various regions in Indonesia, the sounds or music created by the community to accompany the local dances. Therefore, most of the dance area in Indonesia can only be accompanied olehmusik own country. In addition to folk music, pop music and dangdut is also used to accompany modern dances, such as dance, poco-poco, and so on.
For professional musicians and artists, music is not just serve as a medium of expression and self-actualization. Music is also a source of income. They record their work in the form of cassette tape and compact disc (Compact Disk / CD) and sell it to the market. Of the proceeds they earn income to make ends meet. In addition to the cassette and CD media. The musicians also perform the show free of charge. The show is not only done in one place, but it can also be done in other areas in Indonesia or outside Indonesia.
In general, keroncong music has harmony and improvisation music is very limited. Generally, the songs have the same shape and structure. Poems consist of several sentences (generally 7 sentences) are interspersed with musical instrument game.
Dangdut music is the result of a blend of Indian music with Malay music, the music evolved and displays distinctive characteristics and distinct with its roots music. Characteristic of this music lies in the punch instrument tabla (a type of percussion instrument that produces sound ndut). In addition, light rhythm, thus encouraging singers and listeners to work the limbs. The song was easy to digest, so it is not hard to be accepted by society.
This music was born from the condition of Indonesian society that is being colonized by foreign nations. By using music, the fighters trying to rekindle the spirit of unity to rise up against the invaders. Poems that were created at that time, generally contain a call to fight, solicitation untui sacrifice for the homeland, and so on. Rhythm of the music was made quickly and spirit, and topped with vibrant.
POPULAR MUSIC GENRES
J A Z Z
Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the '30s. Brought by musicians from the Philippines who are looking for a job in Jakarta with music playing. Not only transfer the jazz course, they also introduce wind instruments, such as trumpet, saxophone, the music lovers in Jakarta.
In 1948, about 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that features local musicians. One is the famous Dutch musician Jose Cleber. Jakarta Studio Orchestra music game belongs to accommodate Cleber California.
Usually many emerging jazz musicians in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya and Bali. This is due to more jazz currents flowing there through jazz performances (JakJazz, Java Jazz Festival, Bali Jazz Festival), jazz music school, recording
io and cafe
Gospel is a genre that is dominated by the vocal and usually have a Christian theme. Some sub-genres are contemporary gospel and urban contemporary gospel. This Gospel song is actually kind of have a feel similar to the Rock n Roll (because Rock n Roll itself is actually a fusion or a combination of Rock, Jazz, and Gospel), originally introduced by the first Christians blacks in America. Some current examples are still actually using the flow is Israel Houghton gospel music. However, the current understanding of gospel music has evolved into a whole genre of spiritual music. In Indonesia, the homage to pop and gospel music popularized by many rock musicians as Franky Sihombing, Giving My Best, Nikita, True Worshippers, and much more.
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and musical genre cr
primarily within the African-American community in the Deep South of the United States in the late 19th century of spiritual songs, work songs, field hollers, shouts, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. The blues everywhere ... in the form of jazz, R & B, and rock n roll is characterized by a chord progressive specified with twelve bar chord sloping progressions are most common with the tone slanted, noting that for the purposes of expressive sung or played gradually flattened or bent (minor 3rd to 3 major) connection with the field of the major scale.
R & B (also written RnB, stands for rhythm and blues) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues, which was first introduced by African-American musicians.
In Indonesia, the R & B music began to emerge around 1990. The music continued to grow until now. Some Indonesian musicians who brought the R & B genre, among others, Glen Fredly and Rio Febrian.
Funk is an American musical genre that emerged in the late 1960s when African American musicians mixing soul music, soul jazz and R & B into a rhythmic, musical form to sway.
Blends funk melody and harmony and brings a strong rhythmic groove of electric bass and drums to the surface. Funk songs are often based on the expansion of freedom over a single chord.In Indonesia funk music in itself has been known to the public since the advent of funky corporal, although this is still music lovers belonging to minorities,
Rock music in Indonesia began to track in the 1970s. And its appearance could not be separated from the pioneers ranging from Giant Step, God Bless, Gang Pegangsaan, Gypsy, Super Kid, Terncem, AKA / SAS, Bentoel, until Rawe Rontek.
The Rollies is Indonesia's oldest and rock groups, including the group's most often experience assembling the players. Along the way, the group has pioneered the world to record in 1967 this had become a top-tier group of respected audience Bandung, Jakarta, Medan, and Malang. Many consider The Rollies as the founder of the Indonesian rock band whose music has contributed to the present-day Indonesia.
In Indonesia, some famous names in the world of reggae music, among others, Tony Q, Steven & Coconut Treez, Joni Agung (Bali), New Rastafara, and Heru 'Shaggy Dog' (Yogyakarta) and many more emerging new bands. Around 1986, reggae music began to broadcast in Indonesia.
In short, the relationship Musical Communication Systems Indonesia lies in the music itself from time to time as a medium of communication Indonesian society, both in the form of self-expression, aspirations, and religious poetry. As in the past 9 kesunanan guardian, music is used as a medium to bring people to Islam. Music is also one of the medium that bridges the Indonesian society with government.