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Chapter 25 Cooking Methods
Transcript of Chapter 25 Cooking Methods
How would you improve the outcome of your stir fry?
How Food Cooks
All cooking methods have one thing in common:
a method of transferring heat by direct contact.
Create a collage of the ten cooking techniques we talked about in chapter 24. The collage will be created by cutting pictures of foods from magazines that require the preparation techniques taught in class. A rubric will be provided to let you know what is expected of your collage. As your TOD you will present your collage to the class.
How would you compare dry and liquid measuring?
What's the PASSWORD?
As the teacher asks questions about the material being quizzed put a if you understand the topic or a if you are still unsure about the topic. If there are any the topic will be explained again.
Please take out your notes and review for the quiz.
Complete the crossword puzzle on cooking terms as your ticket out the door.
On your bellringer sheet, list everything you already know about cooking techniques.
a method of transferring heat through the movement of molecules in air or liquid.
a method of transferring heat as waves of energy.
Most cooking methods use a combination of heat-transfer processes.
For example, in baking, the surface of the food is heated by convection. The heat then travels through the food by conduction.
All ovens use convection and radiation to cook foods; however, a convection oven has a fan to circulate the heated air. The moving air delivers more heat energy, which promotes browning and crispness.
Effects on Food and Nutrients
The cooking method you choose affects food's color, texture, taste, and nutritional value.
For example, heat destroys some nutrients, especially vitamin C and the B vitamins.
Different cooking processes transfer heat at different rates.
This affects the time foods need to cook, and the speed at which food cooks.
Foods that are denser cook more slowly than foods that are less dense.
For example, a 3 inch cube of meat weighs more than a 3 inch cube of potato, so it is more dense.
Shape and Size
The more surface area a food has, the greater its exposure to heat.
Cutting foods to a uniform, or same, size also helps them cook at the same rate.
The more food you put in the pot, pan, or other cooking area, the longer it takes heat to reach each item.
Foods closer to the heat source will cook more quickly.
Cooking food with energy in the form of electrical waves.
Microwaving retains more nutrients, especially water-soluble vitamins, than most other cooking methods.
Use containers that can withstand, or resist, the heat transferred from the food. Such as glass or containers labeled "microwave-safe."
DO NOT PUT ANY METAL IN A MICROWAVE!
Covering foods helps retain moisture as well as cook more evenly. Also, stirring the food halfway through the cook time helps bring the less cooked foods to the top.
How does convection differ from conduction? What is an example of both types?
a method of cooking food in hot liquid, steam, or both.
Helps tenderize food and blend flavors.
cooking food in a liquid that has reached the highest temperature possible under normal conditions.
water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit
cooking food in a liquid at temperatures just
below boiling. Water simmers at about 185 to 210
Simmering is gentler on foods than boiling
and is less destructive to shape, flavor,
color, and texture.
cooking food in a small amount of liquid at
just below simmering.
A gentle cooking method that helps retain the shape
and tenderness of delicate foods such as fish, fruit,
and eggs without the shell.
cooking food over, but not in, boiling water
Place the food in a perforated steamer basket that fits inside a pan, and fill the pan with water to just below the level of the basket. Cover the pan with a tight-fitting lid to trap the steam created as the water boils.
It takes longer to steam foods than to boil or simmer them, but they retain their appearance, flavor, and nutrients better.
cooking food in a pressure cooker, a special lidded
pot that creates a high-pressure atmosphere
by trapping steam in an airtight chamber.
Water reaches a higher temperature so food
cooks in less time, which means less nutrients lost.
cooking food in simmering liquid and steam.. Cook food in a covered pan. Meats are usually_____
Cooking in Fat
Cooking food in oil or melted fat applies heat through convection and conduction.
Every type of fat has a smoking point, the temperature at which a fat begins to break down and burn.
Pan Frying and Sauteing
These are methods of cooking food in a small amount of hot fat in a skillet over moderate heat.
Frying uses more fat than sauteing and is designed for larger pieces of food, including seafood, eggs, and tender cuts of meat and poultry.
Saute comes from the French word for jump. You shake the pan from time to time as you saute food, which make the food "jump." This technique lets food cook quickly in small amounts of fat without burning.
cooking food in an uncovered skillet in its own natural fat, with no fat added.
This is most often used for thin cuts of tender meat that cook quickly, including hamburgers, steak, and some cuts of pork.
This is often used to sear meat, or brown it quickly over high heat, before the meat is cooked in moist heat.
Cooking food by immersing it in hot fat, without making contact with the cooking vessel.
Fill a deep kettle no more than half full of oil, bring the oil to temperature specified in recipe.
Often referred to as "French Frying."
Stirring small pieces of food over high heat in a small amount of oil until just tender.
Use thin, uniformly sliced pieces of food to ensure fast, even cooking.
A special bowl-shaped pan called a wok is the traditional cookware for stir-frying.
cooking food uncovered without added liquid or fat.
The main difference between dry-heat methods is the position of the heat source.
Roasting and Baking
cooking foods surrounded by heat in an oven
The word "roasting" is used for meat and poultry, and the word "baking" is more often used for vegetables, fruits, casseroles, fish, and baked goods such as cakes.
To roast meat or poultry, place a large, tender cut in a shallow roasting pan without a cover.
When you bake moisture is lost from the food as it cooks.
cooking food under direct heat
cooks the food rapidly
tender cuts of meat and poultry broil well
cooking food on a grate over a open flame
Food for thought:
Don't let your past or present circumstances define who you can become
How would this affect food?
How would this effect how food cooks?
What about this?
How does the cooking process affect the food's sensory qualities?
flavor, aroma, texture and color
Think about the stir-fry lab we did
earlier this month. Use the information you have learned in class to answer the question below
Why are rice and beans best cooked by a moist heat method?
Give an example of a food you would cook with each of the following cooking methods. You may not use an example from yesterday's lesson
What is the difference between
roasting and baking food and broiling food?
What would happen if you tried to roast or broil a less tender cut of meat?