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HIV

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Alysha Hunt

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of HIV

Interesting facts Introduction Infectious Microorganism is a retrovirus
Stores its genetic information on a single-stranded RNA molecule.
is a lentivirus- it takes a long time to cause damage to the body.
Infection is virtually impossible to contract without direct contact
virus works by damaging the immune system and making the body susceptible to a wide range of infections.
attaches to T-helper cells, and inhibits the signal usually translated to the antibody-producing B cell in the case of infection. HIV... HIV Alysha Hunt and Ashley Dorn Disease Video Video Conclusion How is HIV transmitted from one person to another? How is HIV diagnosed? How is HIV Treated? How can the spread of HIV be prevented? Blood
Semen
Vaginal Secretions
Breast Milk HIV can only be transmitted from one person to another through direct contact with either... Statistics Statistics There are several ways that HIV is diagnosed... However, there is no cure for HIV! There are several types of medications that can be used to control the HIV virus. It is best to combine several types of medication in order to avoid creating a strain of HIV that is resistant to a single drug. The medications used are effective at.... Reducing HIV in the body
Keeping the immune system healthy and functioning
Decreasing complications There are 5 different classes of medications... Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) Protease inhibitors (PIs). Entry or fusion inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors. HIV VIRUS HIV is a very interesting topic as there is still a lot of research being done today. Researchers have not yet found a cure for HIV; however, they have managed to find many ways of slowing the progression of the disease. There are also several new discoveries that have been made over the last few weeks that show it can indeed be possible to functionally cure HIV. This is important for us in the medical field as it shows we are progressing towards a cure. However, for the most part we are going to discuses what the established research has to say about HIV. HIV is an important topic as it effects many people in the world, and will probably effect all of us at some point during our medical careers; therefore, it is important that we understand how it works so that we can better be prepared in the future. There are 3 stages to HIV... Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 AIDS It is important to understand how HIV works, and how it can be spread.This allows preventative education to be provided to high risk groups. It is also important to understand the function as there may be similar viruses in the future or new strains of HIV; however, because of our current understanding these future viruses may be easier to treat without having to allocate so many resources. The developments in the last couple of weeks, as in the Mississippi baby, and the visconti cohort who have been functional cured point to the possibility that we may see a cure for HIV in our day. Acute infection Clinical latency Safe Sex practices Not sharing needle Checking donated blood Drugs in some cases Babies
Occupational exposure
Rape
Other high risk activities -number of people living with HIV in Canada rose from an estimated 64,000 in 2008 to 71,300 in 2011.
- estimated 33 million people are infected throughout the world
- Approximately 6,000 to 7,000 HIV-infected women give birth each year in the United States, resulting in 280 to 370 new perinatal infections.
-The cost of HIV is $1.3 million per person infected in Canada
-25% of the people now living with HIV in this country became infected when they were teenagers.
An estimated 15% of patients may be able to keep the virus stable without
being on medication. Some patients can remain asymptomatic for 10-12 year -approximately 60% of men were infected through homosexual sex, 25% through injection drug use, and 15% through heterosexual sex Large amount of the virus are being produced in the body. Stage 1 is often accompanied by an acute illness, described as "the worst flu ever" The body's immune system will eventually bring the levels of virus back down to a level called a viral set point. acute retroviral syndrome or primary HIV infection Body's natural response to the HIV infection At the beginning... Middle and End Most people at asymptomatic
The virus reproduces at very low levels
Can have an undetectable viral load without the use of medication However, the virus can still be transmitted to others during this period The viral load begins to rise in the body Symptoms begin The immune system is badly damaged and becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections. What can be done... Individuals with AIDS usually die within 3 years Anti-retroviral therapy
Prevention of opportunistic infections
Treatment of opportunistic infections Video 14 adults functionally cured of HIV Video Baby functionally cured of HIV Thomas Brown a man who was functional cured of HIV due to a bone marrow transplant Magic Johnson has lived with HIV for over 20 years A course of antiretroviral drugs which reduces the risk of seroconversion after events with high risk of exposure to HIV Such as in the cases of... PCR Test (Polymerase chain reaction test) Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
Rapid HIV antibody tests Antibody Tests Antigen Tests If either of these are positive a Western Blot test is needed blood, oral fluid, or urine can be used blood can be used blood can be used Used on babies as this is the only way to know if the baby is infected, as their blood contains HIV antibodies from their mothers Using latex condoms, lambskin provides little protection against HIV HIV infection is spreading fastest in this country among young people, homosexuals, women, African Americans, and Hispanics. Functionally cured patients are said to be in a kind or remission There are some people who have a natural immunity to the virus Reference A drop of infected blood exposed to natural air we breathe, will kill HIV within 45 seconds. HIV can survive up to 6 weeks in syringes used by intravenous drug users (AIDS.gov, 2009 & Vlahov, Graham, Hoover, Flynn, Bartlett, Margolick, Lyles, Nelson, Smith, Holmberg, Farzadegan,1998) (AIDS.gov.,2012) (Canadian AIDS Society,2011) (TrialsCentral.org, n.d. & TheBody.com. (2001).) About.com. (2008). Hiv infection among men. Retrieved March 20, 2013 from http://aids.about.com/od/dataandstatistics/qt/HIV_men.htm
AIDS.gov. (2012). Hiv test types. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/prevention/hiv-testing/hiv-test-types/
AIDS.gov. (2009). Stages of hiv. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://aids.gov/ hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/hiv-in-your-body/stages-of-hiv/index.html
American Medical Network. (2005). Symptoms and phases of hiv infection & aids. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://www.health.am/aids/more/symptoms_and_phases_of_hiv_infection_aids
Avert.org. (n.d.) Canada hiv statistics summary. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://www.avert.org/canada-hiv.htm Canadian AIDS Society. (2011). Canadian AIDS Society: Cost of HIV is $1.3 million per person infected. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.cdnaids.ca/cost-of-hiv
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Basic information about hiv and aids. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/
Dodds, C., Colman, R., Amaratunga, C., & Wilson, J. (2005). The cost of HIV/AIDS in Canada. Genuine Progress Index. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http:/www.google.ca/ urlsa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3& ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A %2%2Fwww.gpiatlantic.org%2Fpdf%2Fheal%2 Fcostofaids.pdf&ei=Qzi9UO20J8WuigKI3IGgCg&usg=AFQjCNFhRUxH3 Sjaf1raLDdM1RXJq3U0nw HIV infection. (2012) . In A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001627/
TheBody.com. (2001). Facts about hiv/aids. Retrieved March 23, 2013 from http://www.thebody.com/content/art32981.html
TrialsCentral.org. (n.d.). Some interesting facts about hiv/aids. Retrieved March 23, 2013 from http://trialscentral.org/blog/some-interesting-facts-about-hivaids/
Vlahov, D., Graham, N., Hoover, D., Flynn, C., Bartlett, J. G., Margolick, J. B., Lyles, C. M., Nelson, K. E., Smith, D., Holmberg, S., Farzadegan, H. (1998). Prognostic indicators for AIDS and infectious disease death in HIV infected injection drug users. Journal of American Medical Association, 279(1): 35-40. Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://jama.jamanetwork.com
World Vision Canada. (n.d.). Hiv and aids statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http:/www.worldvision.ca/About-Us/News-Centre/Pages/hiv-and-aids-statistics.aspx (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). (About.com, 2008 & Avert.org, n.d.) Dodds, Colman, Amaratunga, & Wilson,2005 & World Vision Canada, n.d.)
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