Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Stress, Competitive Anxiety and Arousal and their effects on Sport Performance

No description
by

Claire-Marie Roberts

on 24 October 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Stress, Competitive Anxiety and Arousal and their effects on Sport Performance

The Stress and Peformance Process
Stress explained
'A pattern of negative physiological states and psychological responses occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well-being, which they may be unable to meet'. Lazarus & Folkman (1984)
Arousal explained
Psychology in Action
Stress
,
Competitive Anxiety
and
Arousal
and their effects on Sport Performance

Dr Claire-Marie Roberts

Lesson Aim and Objectives
Aim - To provide an introduction to stress, arousal and anxiety and their implications on sport performance.
LO1 - All students will be able to provide one description of stress, arousal and anxiety.
LO2 - All students will be able to provide one example of how stress, arousal and anxiety effect performance
LO3 - All students will be able to provide one way in which athletes can minimize the effects of stress and anxiety
Eustress is a good form of stress that can give you a feeling of fulfillment. Some athletes actively seek out stressful situations as they like the challenge of pushing themselves to the limit.
Distress is a bad form of stress and is normally what people think about when they think of stress. It is an extreme form of anxiety, nervousness, apprehension or worry as a result of a perceived inability to meet demands.
Stage 1 - The situational Demand
E.g. Last penalty in a shoot out
Stage 2 - The perception to the demand of the athlete
Positive Perception
(Challenge)
Negative Perception
(Threat)
Stage 3 - Increased arousal levels, increased cognitive and somatic anxiety levels, changes in attention and concentration
Eustress
(Increased motivation and energy)
Distress
(increased worry)
Stage 4 - Outcome
Increased performance
Reduced performance
Activity 1 - Stress and the athlete
In pairs, think of as many possible causes of stress for an athlete of your choice in any sport.
Remember, consider the athlete as a person first and an athlete second.
Causes of Stress in athletes
Internal

Illnesses/infections
Psychological factors (expectations / evaluation)
Sleep deprivation
Perfectionism
External
Sporting environment
Negative social interactions
Major life events
Day-to-day hassles e.g. travel
Other
People in the athletes life
Personal health
Finances
Lifestyle e.g. addictions
Occupational
Job satisfaction
Unemployment
Peer conflicts
Manager conflict
Role conflict
Sporting situation (s)
Importance of the event
Uncertainty of event
Symptoms of stress
Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)

Increased heart rate
Increased breathing rate
Increased heat production
Increased muscle tension
Dilated pupils
Mouth dryness
When you are in a situation you find threatening, your stress response is activated. The way you respond depends on how seriously you view the threat
Parasympathetic nervous system (relaxation)

Muscles relax
Decreases body temp
Decreases heart rate
Decreases breathing rate
Increase in saliva
Constricts the pupils
Anxiety explained
' Anxiety is a state of worry, apprehension or tension that often occurs in the absence of real or obvious danger. Typically the tension felt by anxious individuals is accompanied by a heightened state of physiological arousal'
(Buckworth & Dishman 2002)
State Anxiety
Trait Anxiety
Trait anxiety is an aspect of personality and part of an individuals pattern of behavior. Athletes who have a high level of trait anxiety will become worried in a variety of situations.
(Personality characteristic)
State anxiety is temporary and ever changing mood state that is an emotional response to any situation considered threatening. It is a situation-specific feeling of fear and worry.
(Mood state)
Competitive State Anxiety
' Competitive state-anxiety usually follows a pattern of subjective feelings of tension and inadequacy, combined with heightened arousal of the autonomic nervous system ' (Hackfort & Schwenkmezger, 1989)
The cognitive component has been defined as the negative expectations and concerns about one's ability to perform and the possible consequences of failure. Concentration is also impaired which in turn effects performance (McNally, 2002).
Cognitive State-Anxiety
The somatic component is the physiological effects, such as an increase in autonomic arousal with negative physiological effects, like palpitations, tense muscles, shortness of breath, clammy hands and even nausea (Morris, Davis & Hutchings, 1981)
Somatic State-Anxiety
Activity 2 - Anxiety, Stress and Performance
In pairs, think about the effect (s) anxiety and stress may have upon sport performance? Include both positive and negative effects if you can
(Worry)
(interpretation of physiological responses)
Fine motor skills
Gross motor skills
Effects of stress and anxiety on sport performance
Write down what you think anxiety is?
Impaired concentration
Reduced attentional levels
Co-ordination faults
Negative mental state
Freezing
Over analysis of actions
Decreased performance
Athletes perception of the physiological anxiety symptoms
Improved performance
Write down what you think stress is?
=
Coping strategies to alleviate the negative effects of stress and anxiety
Imagery
Pre-performance routines
Relaxation techniques
Self-talk (specific demands)
Simulation training
Education on anxiety
Think of ways in which athletes can cope with stress and anxiety?
(Moran, 2004)
Write down what you think arousal is?
' Arousal is a general physiological (increased heart rate/Sweating rate) and psychological (Increased attention) activation varying on a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement ' (Gould & Krane, 1992)
Deep Sleep
Intense Excitement
Positive and Negative
Worry
Readiness to perform
Low Arousal
High Arousal
Sport Psychologist's use four theories to explain the arousal-performance relationship
Drive Theory (Hull, 1943)
Arousal and performance = linear relationship
Performance = arousal x skill
Applicable mainly with well learned skills
Implications?
Inverted U Theory/Hypothesis
(Yerkes and Dodson, 1908)
Arousal increase = Performance increase
Optimal arousal = moderate arousal = Optimal performance
Over-arousal = decrease in performance
Catastrophe Theory
Implications?
High cognitive anxiety + High arousal = Catastrophe
High cognitive anxiety + Low arousal = Performance stable
Low cognitive anxiety = Inverted U theory
Assesses how well performers deal with stress
Implications?
Performance?
Individual zones of optimal functioning
(IZOF)
Theory is based upon pre-competitive anxiety scores (rowing studies)
Athletes have preferred anxiety states
Above or below preferred anxiety level = decreased performance
Implications?
Which model do you think explains the relationship between arousal and performance well?
Effects of arousal on sport performance
'Psych up' or 'Psych out'
Symptom interpretation
Attentional focus
Heightened arousal=narrowed and irrelevant information
Optimal states =desirable
Increased anxiety levels
Symptom Interpretation
Choking
Well done, now to harness the power of......


Stress inoculation
Thought-stopping
CBT
FIRST, SOME RULES.......
1. No swearing or profanities
2. No insults
3. Relevant comments only
4. Constructive content
Electrocortical activity
Electroencephalogram

Biochemical indicators
Release of catecholamines

Heart Rate
electrocardiograph

Muscle Tension
electromyogra
MEASURES OF AROUSAL
Respiration Rate
Spirometer

Blood Pressure
Only intermittent recordings available

Palmar Sweating
Activated by alerting stimuli

Galvanic Skin Response
Increased sweating decreases skin resistance

MEASURING STRESS
SALIVARY CORTISOL
SERUM CORTISOL (BLOOD)
HORMONE - INC BLOOD SUGAR, SUPPRESS IMMUNE SYSTEM, AID IN METABOLISM OF FATS, PROTEIN, CHOs
Measuring Anxiety
Observation:
Record the frequency of arousal behaviours
Difficult in real world environment and can increase arousal levels
Can be difficult to interpret
Self-Report Questionnaires
State-Trait Anxiety Inventoty (STAI) developed by Speilberger in 1970 measures the state and trait anxiety of the performer.
People who have high trait anxiety (high A-trait) will see competitive situations as threatening, resulting in severe state anxiety (high A-state) and possibly inhibited performance.
Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)
Devised by Martens in 1977 to test competitive trait anxiety during sports performance.
Martens said because of the links between trait and state anxiety, this would be an effective measure for trait anxiety and a useful predictor of state anxiety.

In 1990 Martens developed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory 2 (CSAI2) which had separate measures for both somatic and cognitive state anxiety.
This is most commonly used in Sports Psychology and measures baseline and pre-competition anxiety.

Cognitive anxiety increases in the days before the event, remaining high, but does not increase prior to competition. During the competition it fluctuates, due to the performers perceived success or failure.

Somatic anxiety remains low until rising dramatically a few hours before the event and decreasing during competition.
Full transcript