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Copy of adrian jordan and christina atencio

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Christina Atencio

on 15 May 2015

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Transcript of Copy of adrian jordan and christina atencio

What happens to the body with sickle cell anemia ?
What part of the body does sickle cell anemia generally affect?
What causes the body to have sickled cells?
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with severe symtoms, including pain and anemia. The disease is caused by a mutated version of the gene that helps make hemoglobin-a protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
What symptoms does a person with sickle cell show?
feeling tired and weak
shortness of breath
dizziness
headaches
coldness in the hands and feet
jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or white of the eyes)
Normal red blood cells have 120-day life span. People born with sickle cell disease have sickle-shaped blood cells that usually live no more than 20 days. The condition deprives the cells of oxygen, which lessens blood flow. This can cause damage to the body's organs, muscles and bones, sometimes leading to life threatening conditions. blood vessels can get blocked.
Sickle cell anemia is caused by the S-type hemoglobin, a molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen throughout the body. When a person has the S-type hemoglobin, the hemoglobin S stack up into filaments in the blood cell, which twist into helical rods.
Sickle cell Anemia is a serious, inherited condition that affects the blood and various organs in the body. It affects the red blood cells through the sickled formation they take on. The sickled cells then press into the walls of blood vessels, which produces pain, anemia, and other symptoms. As time progresses, the sickled cells deteriorate and lower the person's red blood cell count, making them anemic.
Sickle Cell Anemia
By Christina Atencio and Adrian Jordan

Ms.Hall's 8th period
What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
How is the disorder inherited?

The disorder is inherited through the beta-globin gene. A person gets sickle cell whe he inherits an S-type beta globin gene from each parent. Each parent has 2 beta globin genes, but only 1 from each is in the sperm and egg. Half of the cells get the S-type, the other get the A-type.
What chromosome is it found on? Is it recessive or dominant?
How the disorder is diagnosed:

Sickle Cell Anemia is diagnosed at birth with a test called hemoglobin electrophoresis. The test uses a sample of blood to determine what type of hemoglobins are present: the normal, A-type or the variant S-type. The test works in that the blood is put through the gel determines if it is the normal or variant type. If it moves quickly through the electrophoresis gel, it is the normal hemoglobin. If it moves through slowly it is the S-type
- in the gel, the different hemoglobins group together in bands.
- if the person doesn't have the disease, no bands will show in the gel
- if the person has one S-type and one A-type, then they are a carrier of the disease, but do not suffer the sickled cells or other symptoms. Only 1 band of the normal and one of the variant will be present.
- if the person has the disease, two bands will appear in the gel for the S-type hemoglobin.
** There is also a prenatal screening that does nearly the same process, except the test looks directly into the fetus' DNA and takes apart the beta globin genes to seperate the A-type and S-type genes. The fragments align in the electrophoresis gel and 3 bands means a
sickle cell carrier, 1 spot means they
have the disease, 2 spots means no disease at all.









How the disorder is treated:
The disease has no cure, as it is genetically inherited through either parent depending on if the parent is a carrier or infected.
However, the symptoms can be controlled through pain medications, hydroxyurea to
reduce the number of pain episodes, anti-
biotics and vaccines to prevent bacterial infections, and blood transfusions.
Article 1:
(article is found in Britannica school edition on the AVL)
- I predicted the article would cover the disease sickle cell anemia, where the disease affects people in the world, and how the disease effects the body.
- I predicted the article would answer " what causes the disease?", " how many people are affected by the disease?", and " what kind of people are infected.
What type of people are affected and where:
Sickle cell anemia is present in descendants of people from:
-Africa
- Meditterannean
-South America
-India
In America approx. 70,000-80,000 people suffer from the disease. It occurs in 1 of every 500 African Americans; 1 in every 1000-1400 Hispanic American births, and 1 in every 12 African Americans (1% of the population) carries the sickle cell trait.
Sickle cell anemia is a disease that primarily affects African Americans, wherein the beta globin gene gets a mutation to the hemoglobin type A, making the variant hemoglobin type S. People in America, Africa, India and more are affected by the disease, and few only carry the trait. Red blood cells become sickled and cause pain to the inner walls of blood vessels, and the person may show signs of anemia.
Yes; the sickle cell trait/ disease is found on the beta globin gene, and it is an autosomal recessive disease. It is caused by a point mutation in the hemoglobin beta gene found on chromosome 11pl5.5.
How it works:
Article 2:
Citations:
" Sickle cell anemia."
Britannica School.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.,
2015. Web.13, May. 2015.
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