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Unit07 Thinking APSS111_1A07

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Kevin Chan

on 26 October 2016

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Transcript of Unit07 Thinking APSS111_1A07

T
I
L
COGNITION
Language
Levels of language analysis
Language and thought
Threats
Genes
Lead poisoning
Exposure to PCBs and mercury
Alcohol and pregnancy
Malnutrition, poverty
Care and stimulation
Brain damage (Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury)
Smoking, drinking, substance use
Intelligence
Theories
Tests & test properties
Thinking
Concepts
Mental imagery
Problem solving and
decision making
Smarter
Unit Overview
Concepts
Reasoning rationally
Barriers to reason rationally
Measuring intelligence
Cognitive approach to intelligence
Origins of intelligence

Concept
Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having
common properties
.
Building blocks of thought
Natural
and
formal
concepts
A
prototype
is a concept closely matches the defining characteristics of the concept.
Formation is dependent on culture and developmental stages.
Proposition
Schema
A meaningful unit, built of concepts, expressing a single idea
An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
Mental Imagery
A Good Day
Trial and Error
Mechanical solution, work like a machine or computer (rote and rules)
Learning in puzzle box and the law of effect
Exhaust solution space
Systematic and required large mental capacity
Algorithm and Logic
Algorithm
: A problem-solving strategy guaranteed to produce a result (sub-goals and working backward)
Deductive reasoning
: A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises
Inductive reasoning
: A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion probably follows from a set of premises
Heuristic
A “rule of thumb” or simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid, seemingly effortless manner
Representativeness Heuristic
: Basing the estimated
probability
of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
Availability Heuristic
: The tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of
examples or instances
, making judgments on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind
Affect Heuristic
: The tendency to consult one’s
emotions
(good or bad) instead of estimating probabilities objectively
Working backward and subgoals
Insight
A sudden revelation has popped into your mind
Clues in the problem automatically activate memories or knowledge.
Sleep on a problem
Thought without attention, pattern-based rather than rule-based
Problem Solving
Understanding of the problem
Identify the goals
Effective use of mental tools, concepts and images
Making decision
Barriers
Functional fixedness
: Uses fixed by an object's function
Mental sets
: Persist in using particular problem-solving patterns
Confirmation bias
: Search for positive confirming evidence
Unit Summary
We are capable of reasoning rationally by organizing our experience into mental representations (e.g. concept, schema) , and use them to arrive at solutions through algorithms and heuristics.
Sometimes we encounter barriers to reason rationally, such as the influence from framing effect that lead us to overfocus on loss or gain, or mental set that we rely on which limits the ability to think “out-of-the-box”.
Our various abilities to solve problems are organized into the concept of intelligence; by referencing our abilities with the norm. We arrive at intelligence measurements for gauging individual’s generic cognitive abilities.
Language and thoughts are related intricately, and both are related to our inborn predisposition, our experiences and action in relation to the environment and others.

Use it or lose it, cognitively fit
Critical thinking, ability to reasoned and make reasoned judgments
Weight control
Financial matter
Internet security
Advertising
Thinking, fast and slow
Aware pitfalls, avoid making errors
Scientific thinking
Intelligence
: An
ability
to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in
adapting
to new situations or solving problem
Spearman's
g
factor
Measuring intelligence
Weschsler (WAIS, WISC, WPPSI)
Properties of good test
Validity, Reliability, Standardization, Norm
Stanford-Binet (SB-V)
Education,
remedial
Assess children's mental age by comparing to a reference
Past:
Intelligence Quotient
(William Stern) = MA/CA x 100
Present: Norm and percentage (percentile)
Language
Phonemes
: Basic units of sound in a language, vary by languages (ä, æ, tʃ, dʒ)
Morphemes
: Smallest units of meaning, smallest grammatical unit in a language (dog-s, play-ing, re-con-struct-tion)
Semantics
: Rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences, understand relationship between language and meaning
Pragmatics
: Rules of knowing the meaning of things done in communication with others (turn taking, intonation, choices of words, etc.)
Grammar
: System of rules governing the structure and use of a language, a schema
Thoughts
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
: thought processes and concepts are controled by (relative to) language
Cognitive universalism
: Concepts are universal and influence the development of language
Noam Chomsky: Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Innate ability to acquire language
Jean Piaget: Concepts before language
Concepts develop before corresponding language emerge
Lev Vygotsky: Private speech and social behaviors
Private speech in babies guide concept development
Kosslyn (1978) Fictional Island & effort on mental imagery: Effort on mental imagery may be proportional to the size of the problem
Link: "https://youtu.be/fMjJUfHvb8w"
Archimedes & his Eureka! - Insight
Link: "https://youtu.be/ijj58xD5fDI"
Controversy of Intelligence: Crash Course Psychology #23
Link: "
Sternberg's
GARDNER'S
Link: "https://youtu.be/GwG3Ro10D5E"
Full transcript