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Types of Persuasion

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by

James Tilton

on 3 January 2016

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Transcript of Types of Persuasion

Ethos
Ethos = "You should listen to me because of who I am or who I know."
Often
used by experts
or by people with a lot of experience
As a high school student,
I have seen the negative impact of bullying more times than I wish to remember.
Growing up with an African-American father and a white mother,
I have witnessed modern racism firsthand.
Three Types of Persuasion
Persuasion is the act of trying to convince your audience about something.
This can everything from a politician giving a speech to win voters to a high school student writing an essay about the importance of bullying to a lawyer trying to win a case.
Most academic forms of writing and speaking require persuasion.
There are
three types
of persuasion--ethos, pathos, and logos.
These three types of persuasion were first identified by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2400 years ago.
These types of persuasion often overlap, so just one sentence may use more than one type of persuasion.
Thoughts Before You Leave...
1. Which type of persuasion do you find the most convincing? Why?
2. Which type of persuasion do you find the least convincing? Why?

Types of Persuasion
Which of the following is an example of ethos?
1. As someone who really cares about you, I really think that you should stop drinking.

2. People who drink before driving are ten times more likely to get in a car accident.
Which of the following is an example of ethos?
1. Dr. Richard Nightguard asked me to stop drinking.

2. Imagine how it would feel to wake up one morning to find out that your best friend had died the night before from alcohol poisoning.
Practice/Review
1. How many types of persuasion are there?
2. Which Greek philosopher first identified the three types of persuasion?
3. What is the definition of ethos?
4. Practice #1: example of ethos for convincing the principal that bullying is a serious problem.
5. Practice #2: example of ethos for convincing your friends that racism is a serious problem.
Ethos in Real Life
Pathos
Pathos = "You should listen to me because of the what my words are making you feel."
Most often the feelings being created are
fear, guilt, or sadness
, although others are definitely used as well.
My friend killed herself because people like you bullied her into believing that she was ugly.
Imagine what it is like to be a Hispanic girl and to never have seen a Barbie that looked like you.
Which of the following is an example of pathos?
1. Do you really want to have your parents wake up one day to discover that you are in jail for a DUI?

2. Nearly one thousand people are arrested for drunk driving each night.
Which of the following is an example of pathos?
1. Dr. Richard Nightguard told me that I should stop drinking.

2. You only have one "best night of your life." Imagine how it feel to wake up and not remember it at all. Wouldn't that be sad?
Practice/Review
1. What is the definition of pathos?
2. What three feelings are most often created by pathos?
3. What are some reasons why pathos might be convincing?
4. What are some reasons why pathos might not be convincing?
5. Practice #1: example of pathos for convincing the principal that bullying is a serious problem.

Pathos in Real Life
Logos
Logos = "You should listen to me because of the logic, statistics, and facts that I use to support my argument."
There are two main types of logos statements.
Statistics and facts
are one examples of logos.
Logical arguments, such as
"If...Then..." statements
are another example of logos.
Which of the following is an example of logos?
1. If you drink alcohol before you are twenty-one, then you are eight times more likely to die of liver cancer.

2. I was a teenager once, and I can tell you that drinking underage is a mistake.
Which of the following is an example of pathos?
1. There are over 88,000 people who die of alcohol-related deaths every year in the United States.

2. You only have one "best night of your life." Imagine how it feel to wake up and not remember it at all?
Practice/Review
1. What is the definition of logos?
2. What are some reasons why logos might be considered persuasive?
3. What are some reasons why logos might not always be convincing?
4. What is the difference between valid logical statements and invalid logical statements?
5. Practice: Example of logos to convince friends that littering is a problem for the environment.

Logos in Real Life
Statistics and Facts
1. According to the CDC, 443,000 people die from cigarettes each year.

2. Thirty percent of girls will get pregnant when they are still a teenager, according to a 2014 report from the Guttmacher Institute.

3. Half of all marriages end in divorce.
All three of these statements are examples of logos, but one is weaker than the others. Which of these statements is the weakest argument and why?
Logical Arguments
Logical arguments are statements that can be boiled down to an "If... Then..." or a "Therefore" statements. These statements form the building blocks for the argument.



Sometimes, the argument needs to be re-arranged in order for it to resemble an "If... Then..." statement. If a sentence can be easily re-arranged into an "If... Then..." statement, it is an example of logos (even if it does not include the words "if" and "then")
If
my client was in New York on February 2nd,
then
he couldn't have committed the murder.
Therefore,
he didn't commit this murder and should be released immediately.
You're free Tuesday night, right? So let's go to the movies!
Validity and Invalidity
Every "If... Then..." or "Therefore" statement is an example of logos, but not all of these statements demonstrate solid logic. A good logical argument is known as a valid argument, while a bad logical argument is known as an invalid argument.
Every person who has ever worn pants will die. Therefore, pants are deadly.

If you don't know your father, you will be a criminal.

If a person grew up without a father, he or she is more ten percent more likely to end up in jail.
All=Logos
Your opinion doesn't matter.
What matters is how well you argue for your opinion.
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