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Social & Personality Development in Late Adulthood
Transcript of Social & Personality Development in Late Adulthood
in Late Adulthood By: Rachel Davis PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
AND SUCCESSFUL AGING Continuity and Change in Personality
During Late Adulthood ... Continuity:
According to Paul Costa
and Robert McCrae the "Big Five" traits are stable...
Erik Erikson! Ego Integrity Versus Despair
Looking back on one's life:
While Erikson offers a broad overview... Psychologist Robert Peck proposes
three major developmental tasks... 1. Redefinition of Self Versus
Preoccupation with Work Role Value adjustment to place
less emphasis on career 'self' 2. Body Transcendence Versus Body Preoccupation People must learn to cope with and move beyond
changes in physical capabilities. 3. Ego Transcendence Versus
Ego Preoccupation The period in which elderly people must come to
grips with their coming death. Daniel Levinson's Theory of Death:
The Winter of Life 1. Struggle with loss of power,
respect, and authority
2. "Venerated Elders" Coping with Aging: Bernice Neugarten's Study Identified four personality types... 1. Disintegrated and Disorganized Personality
Unable to accept aging, despair (nursing homes and hospitals?)
2. Passive-Dependent Personality
Fearful of age and thus seek out help
3. Defended Personality
Halt aging by "acting young"
4. Integrated Personalities
Acceptance and dignity Quick example of "defended personality" Anyways... Common Thread is
Life Review Age Stratification Theories The view that an unequal distribution
of economic resources, power, and privelege exists among people at different stages of the life course. This theory helps to explain why aging
is viewed more positively in less industrialized societies. Wisdom Expert knowledge in practical
aspects of life. (?) Robert Sternberg quote...
Intelligence permits human beings to invent
the atomic bomb, while wisdom prevents them
from using it. Successful Aging...
"the Secret" Disengagement Theory,
a Gradual Retreat The period that marks a gradual withdrawl from the
world on physical, psychological, and social levels Activity Theory, Continued Involvement Suggests that successful aging occurs when people maintain
interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were
involved during middle age. Continuity Theory,
A Compromise Position Suggests that people need to maintain their desired level
of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of
well-being and self-esteem. Selective Optimization with Compensation:
A General Model of Successful Aging The process by which people concentrate on
selected skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas. II. The Daily Life of Late Adulthood Living Arrangements... 1. Living at home
People over 65 make up 25% of America's 9.6 million single person households.
Roughly 2/3 of those over 65 live with family members.
A community that offers an environment in which all the residents are of retirement age or older and need various levels of care.
Many eventually move into assisted living.
3. Adult Day-Care Facilities
Settings in which elderly individuals receive care only during the day, spending nights and weekends in their own home.
4. Skilled-Nursing Facilities
Settings that provide full-time nursing care for people who have chronic illnesses or are recovering from temporary medical conditions
Approx. 5% of the elderly in 2006
5. Institutionalism and Learned Helplessness
A psychological state in which people in nursing homes develop apathy, indifference, and a lack of caring about themselves.
Personal agency is crucial to psychological well-being Financial Issues: The Economics of Late Adulthood SES mirrors that of earlier years, generally. Unfortunately, 10% of elderly live in poverty.
Drawbacks of a fixed income Work & Retirement Age Discrimination 1970's Legislation Stages of Retirement
4. Retirement Routine
5. Termination Relationships: Old and New Marriages generally remain happy.
Stresses such as "suffocating" during retirement or
caring for an aging spouse may create problems. Also...
Percentage of elderly men who live with a spouse is 72%,
while only 42% of elderly women live with a spouse.
Reasons : Length of Life & Marriage Gradient The Process of Adjustment to Widowhood:
The Stages of Gloria Heinemann & Patricia Evans Phase I: Preparation
Phase II: Grief & Mourning
Phase III: Adaption The Importance of Friendships Offer personal control, companionship, and social support. Family Relationships
Provide a stronghold of emotional support. Significance of Great Grandchildren Elder Abuse The physical or psychological
mistreatment or neglect of elderly